How many hours is part time: How Many Hours is Part-Time? Definition, Benefits, Overtime and More
How Many Hours is Part-Time? Definition, Benefits, Overtime and More
Whether you’re currently a part-time employee or considering a part-time job offer, you may be wondering just how many hours is part-time? You know it’s less than 40 hours, but beyond that, you’re not quite sure what being part-time entails.
What happens if you work more hours than your usual schedule? When does overtime kick in? And what about benefits?
Well, don’t fret! We’re here to help you sort it out and understand how many hours part-time work is and what a part-time employee can expect.
What is Considered Part-Time?
The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) does not define how many hours a week part-time is. The FLSA specifically says that it’s up to the employer to decide what part-time means to the company.
Because there’s no standard definition, for many years, companies have used 35 hours a week as the line between part-time and full-time work. This is likely because the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) considered anyone working less than 35 hours a week a part-time employee. However, this was a number the BLS chose and was not based on a specific legal definition.
The Affordable Care Act does define part-time work: less than 30 hours a week. As a result, most companies schedule part-time employees for 20 to 29 hours per week. However, you could work fewer than 20 hours or more than 29 and still be considered a part-time employee.
According to the ACA, you are a full-time employee if you work an average of 30 hours per week for more than 120 days a year. If you work less than 30 hours a week on average, you’re a part-time employee. If one or even two weeks you work more than 30 hours, you are not automatically a full-time employee if your weekly average remains below 30 hours per week.
Do Part-Time Workers Get Benefits?
There are no federal laws that require part-timers to receive benefits (like sick leave, holidays, or vacation). That said, some states require employers to allow all employees—including part-time workers—to earn paid time off. For example, in California, all workers are eligible to earn a minimum of one hour of paid sick for every 30 hours they work.
Part-time employees may also be eligible for unpaid but protected leave under the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA). One of the eligibility requirements is that an employee has worked for their employer for at least 1,250 hours over the past 12 months. That’s approximately 24 hours of work per week over 52 weeks.
Beyond those benefits, giving part-time workers anything else (retirement, paid vacation, profit sharing) is up to the employer.
What About Overtime?
As an hourly worker, you are not eligible for overtime pay until you’ve worked more than 40 hours in a workweek. So, even if your usual schedule is 20 hours each week, and one or two weeks you work 30 or even 35 hours, your employer is not required to pay you overtime, only your regular hourly salary.
When Part-Time Is Right for You
A part-time job can give you the flexibility a full-time role may lack, help you earn an income when full-time isn’t an option, and help you keep you enhance your skills by keeping you connected to the workforce.
When part-time is the right choice for you, go for it! But before you do, have a clear understanding of how your employer defines part-time, so there are no surprises when you get your schedule (or on your paycheck).
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How Many Hours is a Part Time Job? | Average and Max
Part-time employees make it possible for employers to expand their workforce to meet demand without incurring as many costs as they would if they acquired full-time help. Yet, if an employer’s only experience is with full-time employees, they might be unsure how part-time work impacts their business. For instance, how many hours amount to part-time work? Are part-time employees entitled to benefits? The answers to questions like these and others will shed some light on part-time work.
Table of Contents
- What is a part-time job?
- How many hours a week is part-time?
- Advantages and disadvantages of part-time employees
- Overtime and part-time workers
- What jobs are best suited for part-time employees?
- Frequently asked questions
What is a part-time job?
A part-time job is one in which an employee works less hours and has fewer responsibilities than those with full-time status. For example, a full-time employee traditionally puts in 40 hours per week, whereas a part-time employee may only work 25 hours per week. Some employers may even permit part-time employees to alternate shifts or make their own schedules. This flexibility is desired by many people who have priorities outside of their career, such as caring for a child or elderly family member, attending school, pursuing a hobby, etc.
How many hours a week is part-time?
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey data, the average number of part-time hours per week is 35. This number is merely a point of reference, though, and not enforced by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which offers no guidance on part-time employees vs. full-time employees. However, labeling an employee as part-time does not change the application of FLSA requirements.
The IRS, meanwhile, considers a part-time employee to be someone who works less than 30 hours per week or less than 130 hours per month. They created these criteria for the Affordable Care Act (ACA) since applicable large employers (ALEs) are required to provide minimum essential health coverage only to full-time employees.
Therefore, unless an employer is bound by the ACA, they are generally free to create their own definitions of full-time and part-time work. It may be a good idea to document the differences between the two in company policy, clearly outlining not only the hours expected of each role, but also the eligibility for any benefits that may be available.
Advantages and disadvantages of part-time employees
Many new and growing businesses experience a window where the demand for their product or service eclipses their team’s output. Extra help is needed, but hiring more full-time employees isn’t in the budget. Part-time employees provide a potential solution to this problem. Here’s why:
- Part-time employees have fewer overhead costs (e.g., wages, benefits) than full-time employees.
- Employers can flex their workforce to meet seasonal ebbs and flows in consumer traffic.
- Part-time workers pick up the slack and help ease stress on full-time employees.
Yet, because part-time employees work less hours and have fewer responsibilities than full-time employees, they may not accomplish as much in the same time frame. They may also struggle to form relationships with colleagues and assimilate to the workplace culture.
Overtime and part-time workers
Part-time employees generally don’t work enough hours to qualify for overtime, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t entitled to it. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), nonexempt employees, whether they have full-time or part-time status, must receive premium overtime pay if they work more than 40 hours in a workweek. The rate paid is one and one-half times the employee’s regular rate of pay.
Note: some states have overtime regulations that differ from the FLSA, such as premium pay after a certain number of hours worked in a day.
What jobs are best suited for part-time employees?
Part-time employment is most common in the retail and hospitality industries, though opportunities can be found in almost any sector. Some examples include:
- Bank teller
- Graphic designer
- Administrative assistant
- Construction worker
- Customer service representative
Frequently asked questions about part-time employment
Why do people work part-time?
One common reason people work part-time hours is that they need additional income. They may work a full-time job during the day and a part-time job at night or on the weekends to make ends meet. Another reason is that they have responsibilities or interests, e. g., caring for a child or pursuing a hobby, that prevent them from committing to a full-time career. These people appreciate the flexibility that a part-time job affords them.
When does a part-time worker become full-time?
Employers who are not required to sponsor health insurance may define the minimum hours for part-time and full-time employment on their own terms. As it pertains to ACA enforcement, the IRS allows two methods for determining full- and part-time employees:
- Monthly measurement methodology
On a monthly basis, employees who work more than 130 hours or average 30 hours per week may be considered full-time.
- Look-back measurement methodology
Employers may calculate the hours worked by employees during a specified period of months (measurement period). If the employees average at least 30 hours per week during those months, they are considered full-time for a separate, specified period (stability period).
What workplace rights do part-time workers have?
Aside from employer-sponsored benefits and paid time off, people who are working on a part-time basis generally enjoy the same privileges as full-time employees. They may be entitled to overtime pay, workers’ compensation, unemployment and family and medical leave as long as they meet the requisite criteria.
How many hours worked per day are considered part-time?
Full-time and part-time hours are usually expressed by the week or month, with 40 hours per week being the traditional standard for full-time. Therefore, anyone who consistently works less than eight hours per day could be considered a part-time employee, though it ultimately depends on the employer’s policies.
Are part-time workers happier?
Happiness is subjective. However, part-time employees may have a better work-life balance than full-time employees because they have more time to pursue personal interests.
What is a good salary expectation for part-time employment?
Salaries and hourly wages for part-time work vary based on industry and geographic region. In either case, nonexempt, part-time employees are entitled to at least the applicable minimum wage.
How do I apply overtime regulations to my part-time employees?
Employers must keep accurate and complete records of all hours worked by their nonexempt employees, whether they are part-time or full-time. The FLSA entitles such employees to one and one-half times their regular pay rate for each hour worked in excess of 40 hours per workweek. Different overtime regulations may apply, depending on the state where the employee is working.
Are part-time employees entitled to vacation, sick or holiday pay?
Certain state laws may entitle full- and part-time employees to paid sick leave or paid time off (PTO). Employers need to review their state’s specific requirements. Beyond that, the FLSA generally does not require payment for time not worked, including vacations, sick leave and holidays. Some employers, however, have PTO policies of their own that cover both full- and part-time employees as a recruitment and engagement tactic.
This article is intended to be used as a starting point in analyzing part-time hours and is not a comprehensive resource of requirements. It offers practical information concerning the subject matter and is provided with the understanding that ADP is not rendering legal or tax advice or other professional services.
Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation: Official website
Working hours should provide (Article 100 of the Code): flexible schedule, part-time work),
Features of the regime of working time and rest time for transport workers, communications workers and others with a special nature of work are determined in the manner established by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of December 10, 2002 No. 877.
Working hours – the time during which the employee, in accordance with the internal labor regulations and the terms of the employment contract, must perform labor duties, as well as other periods of time that, in accordance with the Code, other federal laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, refer to to working time.
Normal working hours may not exceed 40 hours per week (Article 91 of the Code).
For certain categories of workers, labor legislation provides for the establishment of reduced working hours (Article 92 of the Code):
The legislation also provides for the possibility of establishing part-time work both by agreement of the parties to the employment contract, and by virtue of the direct obligation of the employer (at the request of a pregnant woman, one of the parents with a child under the age of 14 and in other cases provided for in Article 93 of the Code ).
At the same time, the reduced duration of daily work is established (Article 94 of the Code): 15 to 16 years old – 5 hours, 16 to 18 years old – 7 hours;
90,005 employees aged 14 to 16 who receive general education or secondary vocational education and combine education with work for no more than 2.5 hours during the academic year,
90,005 employees aged 16 to 18 who receive general education or secondary vocational education and combine education with work for no more than 4 hours during the academic year;
The duration of work on the eve of a non-working holiday is reduced by one hour (Article 95 of the Code).
The duration of work (shift) at night is reduced by one hour without further working off (Article 96 of the Code).
The employer has the right to involve employees to work outside the working hours established for this employee:
- for overtime work in the manner prescribed by Article 99 of the Code;
- if the employee works on irregular working hours (Article 101 of the Code).
The legislation provides for the possibility of establishing work in irregular working hours, flexible working hours, shift work, as well as dividing the working day into parts.
The Code also provides for the possibility of introducing a summarized accounting of working hours so that the length of working time for an accounting period (month, quarter and other periods) does not exceed the normal number of working hours. The accounting period cannot exceed one year, and for accounting for the working time of employees employed in work with harmful and (or) dangerous working conditions, three months (Article 104).
This mode of working hours is established when, due to the conditions of production (work) for an individual entrepreneur, in an organization as a whole or in the performance of certain types of work, the established for this category of workers (including workers engaged in work with harmful and (or ) dangerous working conditions) daily or weekly working hours.
In this case, if due to seasonal and (or) technological reasons for certain categories of workers employed in work with harmful and (or) dangerous working conditions, the established working hours cannot be observed during the accounting period of three months , an industry (inter-sectoral) agreement and a collective agreement may provide for an increase in the accounting period for recording the working time of such employees, but not more than up to one year.
The normal number of working hours for the accounting period is determined on the basis of the weekly working hours established for this category of employees. For employees working part-time (shift) and (or) part-time working week, the normal number of working hours for the accounting period is reduced accordingly.
The procedure for introducing the summarized recording of working time is established by the internal labor regulations.
How to set a part-time job with 4 hours working time?
Based on the information you provided, in order to answer your question, you must be guided by the provisions of the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan (hereinafter referred to as the Code), namely:
The conditions and procedure for the rotational method of work are prescribed in article 135 of the Labor Code.
The shift method is a special form of carrying out the labor process outside the place of permanent residence of workers, when their daily return to their permanent place of residence cannot be ensured.
What is a watch?
A shift is a period that includes the working time of all shifts and the time between shifts for rest.
At the same time, the shift should last no more than 15 calendar days, however, the shift period can be extended up to 30 calendar days with the written consent of the employee.
When working on a rotational basis, it is necessary to draw up a shift schedule that reflects working days and rest days.
The employer is obliged to keep records of the working time and rest time of each employee working on a rotational basis.
There are situations, as you described, when an employee needs to go to work during the period between shifts. Let’s look at this situation using your example:
In a company, a shift lasts 30 calendar days, of which: 15 working days and 15 days of rest between shifts. After the next working period (15 days), the employee began inter-shift rest – 15 calendar days.
The employee has rested for 1 day and due to production needs he is called for the next shift for 15 calendar days. Since you withdraw it on the days that fall between shifts, then according to Article 85 of the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan, work for these days will be paid at 1. 5 (Article 109Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan) in size, the remaining days fall on the next shift, therefore they are paid as usual in a single amount.
To restore the usual shift schedule, that is, on 15/15, it is necessary to approve a new schedule in accordance with paragraph 3 of Art. 73 of the Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan and familiarize employees with the new schedule within 10 calendar days before its entry into force.
If an employee wants to take off the required days, and not receive payment in 1.5 times, then a shift of 15 days will be paid in a single amount, and after that an inter-shift rest in the amount of 15 calendar days will be provided:
Regarding work as a conveyor operator and replacement with the performance of work by a packer, this is a combination of paragraph 3 of Article 111 of the Republic of Kazakhstan, I quote: “fulfillment (replacement) of the duties of a temporarily absent employee – the employee, along with his main job, provided for by the employment contract (job description), additional work both in another and in the same position.
In case of part-time work, hours worked are taken into account, and payment is made for the hours actually worked!
item 1 of art. 111. RK, Employees who perform in the same organization, along with their main job, stipulated by an employment contract, additional work in another or the same position or the duties of a temporarily absent employee without being released from their main job, receive an additional payment
an additional payment is made (in excess of the official salary for the main position)!
When working on the condition of combining positions, the conclusion of a separate employment contract is not required!
Therefore, if your Ivanov agrees, then theoretically it is possible if the employee agrees.
But in practice I do not recommend doing this. Because from a financial point of view – payment in one and a half size will be an additional financial burden for the company. But a much greater risk is that the employee is completely left without rest.