Monthly Archives: November 2020

Childcare 2 year old: Help paying for childcare: Free education and childcare for 2-year-olds

Опубликовано: November 30, 2020 в 10:12 am


Категории: Child

Family life (as a partner or parent) and exceptional circumstances caseworker guidance

  1. Guidance updated to remove sections relating to family settlement applications, which is now covered in separate Family and private life settlement guidance.

  2. PDF entitled ‘Concession to the family Immigration Rules for granting longer periods of leave and early indefinite leave to remain’ removed because it is no longer valid.

  3. Updated guidance includes a change to the definition of sponsors; changes to the two-stage approach to Family Life claims; changes to the approach when an applicant has a partner but applies as a parent; clarification that written evidence is required to disclose a document to the Home Office. Information on how to deal with private life considerations has been moved to separate guidance.

  4. Updated ‘Concession for granting longer periods of leave and early indefinite leave to remain’ guidance to clarify the qualification criteria for the concession.

  5. Updated Family life (as a partner or parent), private life and exceptional circumstances guidance.

  6. Added document: ‘Concession for granting longer periods of leave and early indefinite leave to remain’.

  7. Recourse to public funds section updated.

  8. Updated PDF file.

  9. Updated ‘Coronavirus (COVID-19) concessions’ section of guidance.

  10. Updated information on EEA citizens in the UK with limited leave under Appendix EUSS and application of rules for Irish citizens.

  11. Updated family life exceptional circumstances.

  12. Updated guidance to reflect a change to the key dates.

  13. Added information for users with a pending application for leave to remain.

  14. Updated document to reflect family position on COVID-19.

  15. Changes to the appeals section.

  16. Updated guidance.

  17. Updated guidance.

  18. Updated guidance.

  19. Updated family life (as a partner or parent), private life and exceptional circumstances guidance.

  20. The words ‘(except where entry is being granted as a fiancé, fiancée or proposed civil partner)’ have been deleted from the end of the first paragraph in “Decision to grant entry clearance or leave to remain as a partner on a 5 or 10-year route”.

  21. Updated version of the guidance document published.

  22. Updated document.

  23. First published.

Free childcare for 2 year olds



Free childcare (also known as free entitlement) is provided by the Government. It allows some 2 year olds access to free, good quality, flexible early education or childcare.

The activities you do at home enhance your child’s all-round development. It is well documented that high quality early education can influence how well a child does at both primary and secondary school. Read more about the benefits of free childcare for you and your child.

Children can use up to 570 hours each year, or a maximum of 15 hours over 38 weeks, from a pre-school, nursery or accredited childminder registered to offer free places, along with some holiday playschemes meeting specific criteria.

To be authorised to offer free childcare, the childcare provider should be rated ‘Good’ or ‘Outstanding’ in their most recent Ofsted report.

Most families will be better off claiming free childcare than paying for childcare using Tax Credits. If you are eligible for the childcare element of Working Tax Credit/Universal Credit, check if your claim is affected by contacting Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC).


Is my child eligible for free childcare?

Forty per cent of 2 year olds are eligible for free entitlement. To qualify, the child must be of eligible age and the parent(s) in receipt of one or more of the following income-based benefits:

  • Income Support
  • Guaranteed element of State Pension Credit
  • Income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance
  • Income-related Employment and Support Allowance
  • Support under Part 6 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999
  • Universal Credit, and your household income is £15,400 a year or less after tax, not including benefit payments
  • Child Tax Credit, but you are not also in receipt of Working Tax Credit and your household income is £16,190 a year or less before tax
  • Working Tax Credit, but you are not also in receipt of Child Tax Credit and your household income is £16,190 a year or less before tax
  • Working Tax Credit 4-week run on (the payment you get when you stop qualifying for Working Tax Credit), and your household income is £16,190 a year or less before tax.

Or the child meets one of the following other criteria:

  • They are a Child Looked After (where the County Council acts as the corporate parent).
  • They are adopted*.
  • They have a Special Guardianship Order*.
  • They have a special educational need or a disability (SEND). These children are eligible if the child either:
    • receives Disability Living Allowance*
    • has a current Education, Health and Care (EHC) Plan*.
  • They are a child of Zambrano Carers (person from a non-EEA state whose residence is required in order to enable a child or dependant adult, who is British, to live in the UK)**.
  • They are a child of a family with no recourse to public funds with a right to remain in the UK on grounds of private/family life under Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights**.
  • They are a child of a subset of failed asylum seekers (supported under section 4 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 – ‘the 1999 Act’).

*You will need to provide evidence when you apply.

**Their parents or carers (and their partner if they have one) must meet the low level income requirements, for example, a net income threshold of £15,400.

An eligible child born on or between:

  • 1 April and 31 August – can apply online for free childcare for 2 year olds from 1 April. If the application is approved, can then access a free place from the beginning of the term starting in September, following their second birthday.
  • 1 September and 31 December – can apply online for free childcare for 2 year olds from 1 September. If the application is approved, can then access a free place from the beginning of the term starting in January, following their second birthday.
  • 1 January and 31 March – can apply online for free childcare for 2 year olds from 1 January. If the application is approved, can then access a free place from the beginning of the term starting in April, following their second birthday.

Your child can start their free place at any point after their confirmed eligibility start date, which will be detailed in your award letter following your application.

Funding continues until the term after their third birthday, at which point they will become eligible for universal Free childcare for 3 and 4 year olds.


How to apply

If you are eligible for free childcare for your 2 year old, complete either the ‘income-based criteria’ or ‘other criteria’ online application form based on how you qualify.

Apply online: Income-based criteria

(external link)

Apply online: Other criteria

You will be asked to confirm:

  • your name
  • your address
  • the name, gender and date of birth of each child
  • the relevant eligibility criteria you are applying under and evidence, where requested.

If you are claiming under one of the benefit eligibility criteria, ensure you include your National Insurance Number or National Asylum Seeker’s Service Number. Without this your application cannot be processed.

Guidance notes

  • Privacy notice for parents

What happens next

We will review your application, checking whether your child is eligible for funding, and send you the outcome. If 2 year old free childcare is awarded, it will not be removed, even if your circumstances change.

If you do not meet the criteria for free childcare we will contact you advising you to check your eligibility and, if applicable, re-apply in the future.

The processing time for your application may be up to 21 working days. If this period has elapsed, or you have lost your letter from us, email [email protected] for help. If you asked us to email your outcome, please check your spam/junk folder before contacting us.


How to use and claim free childcare

If you are awarded free childcare, you should do the following:

1.  Find out about the types of childcare providers that offer funded places for 2 year olds on Childcare options.

2. Use the Family Information Service’s searchable database or contact us for a list of childcare providers who offer free childcare places.

3. Contact a range of childcare providers to see if they have a vacancy for your child. Arrange to visit as many as you wish and choose the one(s) which best meets your and your child’s needs. Find additional information about what to consider.

4. Tell your chosen childcare provider(s) that you wish to access free childcare for your child. You will need to give them the unique reference number that is written on your award letter. They need this number so we can arrange for funding to be paid directly to them.

5. You will be asked to complete and sign a ‘parent declaration’ form, including:

  • your address
  • your child’s legal name and date of birth (bring evidence such as a passport or birth certificate)
  • how many hours you wish to claim
  • your child’s pattern of attendance (the days and hours they will be there).

The childcare provider will do the rest. If you need help, contact us.


Additional information

As a parent, you know your child best and should discuss your child’s needs with the childcare provider to help you decide how often your child should attend. A regular pattern of attendance is important to ensure your child’s continued development. You should aim to use your chosen childcare provider for as long as possible, avoiding the need to move your child every few months or term.

Providers that are open all year round may offer parents the flexibility to stretch the hours across the whole year, reducing the number of hours available each week, so that you do not exceed the yearly maximum. Note that this may result in slightly less hours per year, for example 11 hours per week for 51 weeks (561 hours per year) instead of 15 hours for 38 weeks (570 hours per year). Check this with your chosen childcare provider.

You can read the terms and conditions that childcare providers must follow in the provider declaration. Ensure you fully understand and agree to any terms and conditions before you accept a place.

Not all childcare providers will be able to deliver your preferred days/hours. However, the flexibility you need may be achieved by using more than one childcare provider, but not on more than two sites in one day. You must let the childcare provider know if you intend to split the funding across more than one childcare provider.

If you are planning to only access your child’s free hours, childcare providers must ensure that no fees or conditions of access are charged, including:

  • no registration/administration fees or non-refundable deposits
  • no requirement for a child to access additional hours on top of the free hours
  • no requirement for the child to access additional weeks on top of the funded weeks.

Your childcare provider should not charge you as the funding is for a free place rather than a subsidy towards your fees. However, they can set their own rates for any additional time or services that you take. They should let you know in advance what you will be expected to pay. You may be able to get extra help with any additional costs of your childcare place.

It is important you fully understand the childcare provider’s admissions policy, which services are included, what they may charge for and any dates by which you need to make a claim.

Read our FAQs for more information about using the free hours:

  • Free childcare for 2 year olds – FAQs (PDF, 134KB)

Free Early Education for two year olds


Your 2 year old child can get free childcare if you live in England and get one of the following benefits:

  • Income Support
  • income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA)
  • income-related Employment and Support Allowance (ESA)
  • Universal Credit, and your household income is £15,400 a year or less after tax, not including benefit payments
  • the guaranteed element of Pension Credit
  • Child Tax Credit, Working Tax Credit (or both), and your household income is £16,190 a year or less before tax
  • the Working Tax Credit 4 week run on (the payment you get when you stop qualifying for Working Tax Credit)

2 year old child can also get free childcare if they:

  • are looked after by a local authority
  • have an education, health and care (EHC) plan
  • get Disability Living Allowance
  • have left care under an adoption order, special guardianship order or a child arrangements order

You may have to pay for extra costs like meals, nappies or trips.

Contact your childcare provider or local council to find out more.

If you’re a non EEA citizen who cannot claim benefits

If your immigration status says you have ‘no recourse to public funds’, you may still get free childcare for your 2 year old. You must live in England and your household income must be no more than:

  • £26,500 for families outside of London with one child
  • £34,500 for families within London with one child
  • £30,600 for families outside of London with two or more children
  • £38,600 for families within London with two or more children
  • You cannot have more than £16,000 in savings or investments

Check your eligibility with our childcare team

Check your eligibility on our parent portal.

If eligible, the system will give you a code, which you can give to your chosen childcare provider to claim the free childcare.

Start dates for free childcare places

Eligible two year olds can start receiving their entitlement the term after their second birthday.  

  • Birthdays between 1 September and 31 December, funding starts in the spring term (January)
  • Birthdays between 1 January and 31 March, funding starts in the summer term (April)
  • Birthdays between 1 April and 31 August, funding starts in the autumn term (September)

Number of hours entitled to

Eligible 2 year olds are entitled to 570 hours of free early education per year. It’s usually taken as 15 hours a week over 38 weeks of the year (split into three terms).

However, if your child‘s provider is open all year round, such as a day nursery, the free hours will be spread equally over those weeks. For example, if your child attends a provider that is open for 51 weeks a year, they will receive 11 hours a week.

National limits

National limits are set by the government about how the free sessions can be offered meaning that:

  • no session can be longer than 10 hours
  • a maximum of 15 hours per week can be taken over a minimum of two days
  • you can use your free childcare during the weekends as well

You can discuss with the provider how your free hours can be taken. Some may offer set days and times, whereas others may be more flexible. If needed, you can purchase additional hours of childcare.

Finding a provider

A variety of providers offer free early education and childcare for two-year-olds, including:

  • day nurseries
  • pre-schools or playgroups
  • childminders
  • nursery schools

For a list of childcare providers in your area offering funded spaces, please contact Early Years & Childcare Team on 0208 496 3566 or email [email protected].  

Once you have chosen your preferred childcare setting, contact them directly to arrange for your child to start.

If you would like to take up any additional hours outside the Free Early Education Entitlement, the childcare provider will invoice you accordingly.

Please note that taking up a nursery place at a school does not guarantee a reception or Year 1 place at that school. There is a completely separate admissions procedure for reception and Year 1 classes in a school.

Quality of Free Early Education providers

Free Early Education Entitlement (FEEE) providers must be:

  • registered with Ofsted/DfE
  • issued with a contract by the Local Authority to do this.

To get a contract from the Local Authority, they must demonstrate their understanding of the legal and statutory requirements they must comply with:

  • planning and building regulations,
  • health and safety(including premises statutory compliance),
  • employment law
  • safeguarding
  • finance

Providers who fail to demonstrate that they have an understanding of and comply with the requirements covered by the compliance checks, will not be commissioned by the Local Authority as providers. 

Watch these videos to find out more

Stay 2 Play: free sessions for 2 year olds

Not ready to take your child to a nursery or pre-school? Bring them to a free Stay 2 Play session at a Waltham Forest Children and Family Centres and join in the fun yourself. Each two hour session supports your child’s learning through playing with other children alongside their parents or carers.

A range of stimulating activities are available at the sessions allowing your child to play, paint, read, cook, climb, sing, dance, dress up, jump, run around, whatever they like doing.

If you do not have your 2 year old eligibility code or access to the internet, just come along to one of the sessions, bring your National Insurance Number or your National Asylum Support Service (NASS) number, and we’ll also do the check for you on the day. You can attend the session whether you are eligible for the Free Childcare for 2 year olds or not.

See Stay 2 Play sessions on our Facebook group or go to the Children and Family Centres page.

Working Families | England – Free childcare for children aged 2, 3 & 4

Last updated: 20 Apr 2022

In England, there are three government-funded early education schemes that offer free childcare for children aged two, three and four:

  • 15 hours free childcare for eligible 2-year-olds
  • 15 hours free childcare for all 3 and 4-year-olds
  • 30 hours free childcare for eligible 3 and 4 year-olds

These schemes are only available to families living in England, although similar schemes are available in Scotland and Wales.

Each of the free childcare schemes has different eligibility rules so it’s important to check which of the schemes is right for you. More information on each scheme is outlined below, followed by frequently asked questions and information on how to apply for each scheme.

15 hours free childcare for 2-year-olds

In order to be eligible for free childcare for your two-year-old, you must either be in receipt of a qualifying benefit or your 2-year-old child must fit into one of the categories of children who have additional needs.

The qualifying benefits are:

  • Income Support
  • income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance (JSA)
  • income-related Employment and Support Allowance (ESA)
  • Universal Credit – if you and your partner are on a low income from work (this usually means a combined income no more than £15,400 a year after tax)
  • Child Tax Credit and your family have an annual income of no more than £16,190 before tax
  • the guaranteed element of State Pension Credit
  • support through part 6 of the Immigration and Asylum Act
  • the Working Tax Credit 4-week run on (the payment you get when you stop qualifying for Working Tax Credit)

Note: If you do not qualify for the benefits above because you are subject to immigration control, you may still qualify for 15 hours free childcare. You must still be on a low income (see FAQ below).

Even if you are not receiving a qualifying benefit your 2-year-old can still get free childcare if any of the following apply:

  • they’re looked after by a local council
  • they have a current statement of special education needs (SEN) or an education, health and care (EHC) plan
  • they get Disability Living Allowance
  • they’ve left care under a special guardianship order, child arrangements order or adoption order
  • you can’t claim benefits because of your asylum seeker status or a no recourse to public funds condition. This only applies in specific circumstances – see FAQ below.

Contact your childcare provider or local council to find out how to apply or if you need further guidance.

15 hours free childcare for 3 and 4-year-olds

This scheme is universal and open to all 3 and 4-year olds. There are no earnings or work requirements.

You should be able to start receiving the childcare from 1 January, 1 April or 1 September following your child’s 3rd birthday.

Contact your childcare provider or local council if you need further guidance.

30 hours free childcare for 3 and 4-year olds

To be eligible for 30 hours free childcare for your 3 or 4-year-old, you and your partner must each expect to earn (on average) the equivalent of working 16 hours a week at your national minimum wage (£152 per week, less if you are under 23).

You will still be treated as meeting the earnings requirement if you or your partner are on maternity, paternity or adoption leave – this applies whether you are single or a couple. The earnings requirement also does not apply if you are self-employed and you started your business less than 12 months ago.

You are not usually able to use the scheme if either you or your partner has a taxable income over £100,000.

To receive 30 hours free childcare you will need to apply online through gov. uk. After registering for an account, you will get a code that you can take to your childcare provider. You need to apply before the term starts or you will have wait until the beginning of the next term.

There is a government helpline if you need help with the application.

Frequently asked questions

Below is a summary of the most frequently asked questions we receive about the free childcare schemes on our helpline.


I am on a visa and have no recourse to public funds. Am I still eligible for free childcare?

Government funded early education and childcare is not a ‘public fund’ for immigration purposes, so can be accessed by a child regardless of their immigration status. However, some schemes have eligibility requirements relating to the immigration status of the parent(s) and so may not be available to all families. 

15 hours for 2-year-olds

If you are on a visa with no recourse to public funds (NRPF), you are likely to be restricted from receiving a qualifying benefit because most of them are considered ‘public funds’.

Parents with certain types of NRPF visas can access 15 hours free childcare for their 2-year-old child. To be eligible, you must have one of the following types of immigration statuses:

  1. Zambrano carer (derivative right to reside in the UK under European law as the primary carer of a British child or dependent adult).
  2. Leave to remain with NRPF granted on family or private life (Article 8) grounds.
  3. You have claimed asylum in the UK, you are waiting for a decision and you are getting support from the Home Office (‘Part 6’ support).
  4. ‘Appeal rights exhausted’ (ARE) asylum seeker receiving asylum support from the Home Office under section 4 of the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999.

If you meet conditions 1 or 2 above, you must also be on a low income to qualify. This means you and your partner must have a combined income no more than than £15,400 per year after tax.

You can also apply if your child if your child:

  • is looked after by a local council
  • has a current statement of special education needs (SEN) or an education, health and care (EHC) plan
  • gets Disability Living Allowance
  • has left care under a special guardianship order, child arrangements order or adoption order

15 hours for 3 and 4-year olds

If you are not allowed to receive public funds due to your immigration status, you can still use 15 hours free childcare for 3 and 4-year-olds.

15 hours per week of free childcare is universal for all children aged 3 to 4 years old. Children can benefit regardless of their, or their parent’s, immigration status. 

Contact your childcare provider or local council if you need further guidance.

30 hours for 3 and 4-year olds

You may not be able to apply for 30 hours free childcare for 3 and 4 year olds. The parent who applies for 30 free hours will need to meet a residence requirement. In order to meet the requirement, the parent applying must have one of the following:

  • British or Irish citizenship
  • Settled or pre-settled status granted under the EU Settlement Scheme
  • A pending EU Settlement Scheme application
  • Immigration permission that allows access to public funds, such as indefinite leave to remain or refugee leave

A parent who has NRPF will not meet the residence requirement. In two-parent households, at least one parent on the application will need to meet the residence requirement. If a single parent or both parents in a household have NRPF, the family will be unable to access 30 hours childcare.

For more information on eligibility and how to apply, see the government site.

I’m claiming free childcare, but my circumstances have changed. Will it affect my eligibility?

15 hours for 2-year-olds

Once you have been accepted for 15 hours free childcare for 2-year-olds, your child will continue to receive free childcare even if you have a change of circumstances, such as an increase in income or no longer qualifying for benefits.

30 hours for 3 and 4-year olds

A change in circumstances may affect your eligibility for 30 hours free childcare. In order to be eligible, you must apply for a code to give to your childcare provider. Codes expire after three months, so you must reconfirm your eligibility to obtain a new code which means you must continue to earn or expect to earn enough to satisfy the earnings requirement.

If your circumstances change and you are no longer eligible for 30 free hours when it comes time to reconfirm, you will be given a grace period. This is a short period of time for you to be able to get back to eligibility, and your child will retain their 30 hour placement.

If after the end of the grace period, you are still not eligible for 30 free hours, your child will still be entitled to 15 free hours because it is a universal entitlement. You can apply for 30 free hours again in the future if you become eligible.

If you have questions about reconfirmation and grace periods, speak to the government helpline.

My child is turning 5 but isn’t starting school yet. Are we still eligible for 15/30 free hours?

15/30 hours free childcare for 3 and 4-year olds stops when your child reaches the compulsory school age and starts in reception class (not when they turn 5).

According to statutory guidance for local authorities on the free childcare schemes, a child is required to start reception on the 31st March, 31st August or 31st December after their 5th birthday. This will be the same day that they stop being eligible for 15/30 free hours.

Contact your childcare provider or local council if you need further guidance.

I am a student. Am I eligible for free childcare?

You can be, if you meet the eligibility requirements. If you are in receipt of a qualifying benefit, you may be eligible for 15 free hours for 2 year olds. If you work and earn enough to satisfy the earnings requirement, you may be eligible for 30 free hours for 3 and 4 year olds.

You may also be eligible for help through Care to Learn, Childcare Grant, and the Parents’ Learning Allowance. For more information, see our article on pregnancy and maternity for students.

Eligibility – 30 free hours

I’m on maternity or statutory family leave. Am I still eligible for 30 free hours childcare?

Yes, you will still be treated as meeting the earnings requirement for 30 free hours childcare if you or your partner are on maternity, paternity, adoption and shared parental leave, even if you are on unpaid leave. This is because you’re treated as working while on maternity, paternity, adoption and shared parental leave, even if you’re not longer getting any pay. So you should still be entitled to the 30 hours, as long as your partner also meets the conditions.

I’m on sick leave. Am I still eligible for 30 free hours?

You can usually still get 30 hours free childcare if you are on paid sick leave, either paid by your employer or on Statutory Sick Pay (SSP). Normally, HMRC treat those on sick leave as in work.

If you are not in receipt of SSP or another benefit such as Employment and Support Allowance, you may still be entitled to 30 free hours but you may be asked to submit proof of sickness, such as fit notes from your GP, to HMRC when reconfirming your eligibility.

If you have further questions about reconfirmation and eligibility while on sick leave, speak to the government helpline.

I am unable to work because I’m disabled or a carer.

Can I still be eligible for 30 free hours?

If you are in a couple, and one of you meets the earnings requirements but one of you is unable to work because you have a disability or you are a carer, then you will be exempt from the earnings requirement.

In this circumstance, one of you must be working and the other would need to provide evidence that you are unable to work by showing that you are receiving Incapacity Benefit, Severe Disablement Allowance, Carer’s Allowance, Employment and Support Allowance, or the carer element or the limited capability for work and work-related activity element of Universal Credit.

My partner is self-employed. Can we still be eligible for 30 free hours?

Yes. To be eligible for 30 hours free childcare, you and your partner must be working (either employed or self-employed) and each expect to earn (on average) the equivalent of working 16 hours a week at the national minimum wage for people over 23 (£1,853.28 every 3 months).

This earnings requirement will not apply if your partner is self-employed and started their business less than 12 months ago.

If your partner is self-employed and does not expect to make enough profit in the next 3 months to meet the earnings threshold, they can use an average of how much they expect to make over the current tax year.

HMRC may penalise you if you are careless or dishonest when you apply for or reconfirm your eligibility for 30 hours free childcare. However, there is no penalty if you genuinely expect to earn the required amount, but are not able to.

Together my partner and I earn over £100,000. Are we still eligible for 30 free hours?

You are not usually able to use the 30 free hours scheme if either you or your partner individually has a taxable income over £100,000.

You will still be eligible for 30 free hours childcare if your combined income is greater than £100,000, as long as individually neither of you earn greater than that amount.

I am an apprentice and work full time. Can I apply for 30 free hours childcare?

Yes, as long as you meet the earnings threshold. To be eligible for 30 hours free childcare for your 3 or 4-year-old, you, and any partner, must each expect to earn (on average) the equivalent of working 16 hours a week at your national minimum wage.

I missed the reconfirmation deadline for 30 free hours. Can I still recieve 30 free hours?

HMRC manages the application process and sends out reminders to parents about the need to reconfirm their eligibility for 30 free hours childcare every three months.

If you miss the reconfirmation deadline, you should receive a message telling you that you are no longer eligible for 30 hours childcare. You should be given a ‘grace period’ so that your child can continue with their free place for a short period of time.

If you are still eligible for 30 free hours, you can make a new application for 30 hours. If your circumstances change and you are no longer eligible for the additional 15 hours of free childcare, you can still access the 15-hour universal entitlement.

If you have questions about reconfirmation and grace periods, speak to the government helpline.

Applying for free hours entitlement

How do I apply?

15 hours for 2-year-olds

How you apply for 15 free hours for 2 year olds depends on your local council and how they run the scheme. You should contact your childcare provider or local council to find out how to apply. You may need to apply through your local council, or you may be able to apply through your childcare provider.

15 hours for 3 and 4-year-olds

You do not need to apply for 15 free hours for 3 and 4-year-olds because it is a universal entitlement. You should speak to your childcare provider who should be able to claim the free hours on your behalf. If you have any further questions, you should speak to your local council who are responsible for ensuring that there are a sufficient number of free entitlement spaces.

30 hours for 3 and 4-year-olds

To receive 30 hours free childcare you will need to apply online through After registering for an account, you will get a code that you can take to your childcare provider. You need to apply before the term starts or you will have wait until the beginning of the next term. There is a government helpline if you need help with this.

When should I apply and when can my child access free entitlement?

15 hours for 2-year-olds

The earliest you can apply is at the start of the term in which your child turns 2. The childcare will not actually start until the beginning of the term after you apply (either 1 January, 1 April or 1 September).

For instance, if your child turns 2 on 15 February, you can apply during the term that begins on on 1 January and your child can start during the term starting on 1 April.

15/30 hours for 3 and 4-year-olds

The earliest you can apply is at the start of the term in which your child turns 3. The childcare will not actually start until the beginning of the term after you apply (either 1 January, 1 April or 1 September).

For instance, if your child turns 3 on 15 June, you can apply during the term that begins on on 1 April and your child can start during the term starting on 1 September.

I am due to start/return to work soon. Do I have to wait until I start work to apply for 30 free hours?

No. If you are due to start work (or return to work) within the next 31 days, you can apply for 30 free hours as long as you expect to earn on average the equivalent of working 16 hours on the national minimum wage.

To receive 30 hours free childcare you will need to apply online through After registering for an account, you will get a code that you can take to your childcare provider. You need to apply before the term starts or you will have wait until the beginning of the next term. There is a government helpline if you need help with this.

Using the free hours entitlement

My childcare provider says I must use the free hours in a particular way. Are they correct?

Each childcare provider has a different approach to the government scheme, and how the free hours are used are typically down to your agreement with them. If you have an issue, you should speak to your childcare provider or your local council.

The 15 hours entitlement is usually taken over 38 weeks of the year. With the agreement of your childcare provider, you can use the hours in term time only or stretch the hours over more than 38 weeks. If you stretch the hours out over 52 weeks, you will be entitled to 11 hours per week.

Similarly with 30 hours entitlement, it can be taken over 38 weeks or stretched to cover the whole year depending on what your childcare provider offers. If you stretch the entitlement, you would receive 22 free hours per week.

The statutory limits say that you can claim a maximum of 10 hours on one day. The minimum is 3 hours in one day.

Some childcare providers are flexible in their approach, and others require you to use the free hours in a particular way (e.g. in a set number of full days or half days). This is typically down to your agreement with them.

Can I use free childcare schemes while claiming Universal Credit/Tax Credits?

This advice applies in England, Wales and Scotland. If you live in another part of the UK, the law may differ. Please call our helpline for more details. If you are in Northern Ireland you can visit the Labour Relations Agency or call their helpline Workplace Information Service on 03300 555 300.

If you have further questions and would like to contact our advice team please use our advice contact form below or call us.

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The information on the law contained on this site is provided free of charge and does not, and is not intended to, amount to legal advice to any person on a specific case or matter. If you are not a solicitor, you are advised to obtain specific legal advice about your case or matter and not to rely solely on this information. Law and guidance is changing regularly in this area.

We cannot provide advice on employment rights in Northern Ireland as the law is different. You can visit the Labour Relations Agency or call their helpline Workplace Information Service on 03300 555 300.

Free childcare for 2 year olds


Some two year olds are entitled to free early learning and childcare. The eligibility starts the school term after the child’s second birthday. Although not all two year olds are entitled to a free place, all children become eligible for free childcare and early learning places from the school term after their third birthday. Free early learning and childcare for 3 and 4 year olds.

The Childcare Choices website offers a comparison guide for the different ways you could reduce your childcare costs.


Eligibility criteria for two years old funded early learning and childcare 
Children born in the period

Become entitled for funding at the start of the funding period or following

Funding period

1 January – 31 March 1 April Summer
1 April – 31 August 1 September Autumn
1 September – 31 December 1 January Spring

Either parent must be in receipt of one of the following benefits:

  • Working Tax Credit provided your annual income (as assessed by HM Revenue & Customs) does not exceed £16,190
  • Income Support
  • Income Based Job Seekers Allowance
  • Income-related Employment and Support Allowance
  • Support under part VI of the Immigration & Asylum Act 1999
  • Child Tax Credit provided your annual income (as assessed by HM Revenue & Customs) does not exceed £16,190
  • Guarantee element of State Pension Credit
  • Universal Credit (provided you have an annual net earned income of no more than £15,400, as assessed by earnings from up to three of your most recent assessment periods)

Or, the child:

  • has been adopted from local authority care
  • has been looked after by a local authority
  • has left care through a special guardianship or child arrangements order
  • is in receipt of Disability Living Allowance
  • has an Education, Health and Care (EHC) Plan

If you have received a letter, you will need to complete the online application form to check your eligibility. The letter is not proof of entitlement as your circumstances can change. You do not need the letter to make an application – anyone meeting eligibility can apply.

Apply for free childcare for 2 year olds

Apply for free childcare for 2 year olds

If you qualify, you will receive an authorisation code, which you need to give to the early learning and childcare provider of your choice and discuss taking up a place with them. The authorisation code can be used at more than one provider and is valid until the funding period following your child’s third birthday.

If you are eligible, your child is entitled to a maximum of 570 funded hours in the 12 month period. Please refer to the table above for the eligible dates of birth.

  • Information about 3 and 4 year old funding

Frequently asked questions

What is the entitlement?

The hours and sessions which are available for funded childcare will depend on the individual childcare setting and will need to be agreed in advance. There should not be any additional costs attached to claiming the funded hours, such as top up fees or uniform charges.

What are the benefits for my child?

Children benefit from early learning, we know this from research. Good quality early learning:

  • helps your child to be happy, confident, sociable and curious
  • gives opportunities to be active and learn through fun and play, indoors and outdoors
  • offers many activities including creative and messy play
  • helps them to become effective learners and ready for school
  • has a long term impact on their development

How do I find a place?

You can find a list of childcare providers near where you live who have been approved to offer free places for 2 year olds on the Cambridgeshire Online Directory. You can then contact the childcare provider directly to see if they have any vacancies. It is best to do this as soon as possible, because some childcare settings have long waiting lists. Visit the Finding a childcare place page for more information.

  • If your child already attends childcare, please ask your childcare provider if they offer free places for 2 year olds.
  • If you need further support you can visit your nearest Child and Family Centre.

If Peterborough City Council is your local authority, you can apply for free childcare on their website.

Will it affect my tax credits?

Childcare costs are included in the calculations made by HMRC to ensure that you receive the right amount of credit that you are entitled to. If you already pay for childcare and claim child tax credit to cover the cost, you must notify HMRC as soon as possible if taking up a free place reduces the cost of your childcare by £10 or more a week.

You do not need to notify HMRC if your cost does not change, for example if you use the free childcare to increase the number of hours your child attends. You will always be better off taking up a free place as tax credits only contribute to a part of the full cost of childcare and not all of it.

There is HMRC guidance for parents or carers who may be having difficulty claiming childcare support through tax credits or childcare vouchers if their childcare provider is a school. 

  • Tax credits: working out your childcare costs 
  • Tax credits calculator

You can contact the Council’s Education Welfare Benefits Team for information about applications for free school meals, or benefits which support children financially while at school or college.

Education Welfare Benefits Team
Box Number: ALC2606
New Shire Hall
Emery Crescent
Enterprise Campus
Alconbury Weald
PE28 4YE

Email: [email protected]
Tel: 01223 703 200


Extended entitlement (30 hours) childcare for working parents


Universal entitlement to free childcare for 3 and 4 year olds

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Early learning and childcare expansion – Early education and care

Please note that the ELC expansion has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Please visit the Parent Club for the latest news and answers to some of the questions you might have.

Funded early learning and childcare (ELC) is available to all three and four year olds and eligible two year olds. From August 2021, the entitlement will increase to 1,140 hours a year (30 hours a week if taken term time).

The expansion of funded ELC, originally intended for August 2020, was paused in April to give local authorities the flexibility to focus on responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.

The new date of August 2021 has now been agreed with local authority umbrella group COSLA. The Scottish Government will pass legislation in early 2021 so that this duty will come into force from August 2021. We published our joint implementation plan for funded early learning and childcare places for all children who defer their primary one start in December 2020.

The main aims of the expansion in ELC are to:

•    improve children’s outcomes and help close the poverty-related attainment gap
•    increase family resilience through improved health and wellbeing of children and parents
•    support parents into work, study or training

If you are a parent or carer you can get information on early learning and childcare on the Parent Club website.

Support for local authorities

Local authorities are responsible for ensuring that funded entitlement is available for all eligible children in their area. We are supporting them to build the capacity needed in their communities to phase in extended entitlement. We have a multi-year capital and revenue funding agreement in place with the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA) which is fully funding the expansion in funded entitlement.

This will see annual revenue investment increase by £567 million on 2016-17 levels by 2021-22. It includes funding to enable the payment of sustainable rates to funded providers delivering the funded entitlement – including funding to enable payment of at least the real Living Wage to all childcare workers delivering the funded entitlement. We have also provided councils with capital funding of £476 million to support associated building projects.

Support and guidance for ELC providers

To find out how to become a funded provider you can contact your local authority’s ELC team or visit their website to find out more.

We published a delivery support plan for providers in December 2018, outlining our support in four areas:

  • financial sustainability
  • partnership working
  • workforce recruitment and training
  • communications with parents and carers

ELC providers can also find out about support for their business by contacting their local Business Gateway office.  

We have worked with COSLA to set up an ELC Partnership Forum to promote joint working with and across the ELC sector.

Partnership Principles between COSLA and the ELC representative bodies

Funded providers can register an interest in joining the forum by emailing: [email protected] 

We have also developed a 12-step guide for ELC providers to support them with recruitment and training.

Progress of the ELC expansion programme

When the extent of the COVID-19 pandemic became clear, the Scottish Government took the difficult decision to suspend the statutory duty on local authorities to provide 1140 hours of early learning and childcare from this August. The increase to 1140 hours will now take place from August 2021 but from now until then, all eligible children across Scotland will be able to access at least 600 hours of funded ELC. Many authorities are already offering 1140 hours in advance of this statutory duty, to some or all eligible children. 

ELC for two year old children

We know that high quality early learning and childcare (ELC) can make a huge difference to children’s lives, particularly when they are growing up in more disadvantaged circumstances.

That is why we offer funded ELC to two year olds who are most likely to benefit from early access.

This includes all looked after children and children whose family receive a qualifying benefit, which is around a quarter of the two year old population.

Increasing uptake and awareness

We are working with local authorities and others to increase awareness and uptake of the two year old offer, and improving information available to parents and carers.

For example, we provide information and advice about ELC options on the Parent Club website and the Children and Young People Improvement Collaborative has been testing approaches to improve the uptake of funded ELC for eligible two year olds.

To inform our work in this area, we commissioned research on the drivers and barriers to uptake amongst two year olds.


Prior to 2014, three and four year olds were entitled to 475 hours per year of free pre-school education. The Children and Young People (Scotland) Act 2014 extended provision to 600 hours for all three and four year olds and for two year olds who were looked after (including those in kinship care) and those whose parents were in receipt of out of work benefits.

From August 2015, we extended provision for two year olds further to those whose families meet the eligibility criteria for free school meals

National Standard for early learning and childcare

To ensure that all children experience the highest quality of early learning and childcare (ELC) the sector is working towards the full introduction of Funding Follows the Child in August 2021.  

Funding Follows the Child is ‘provider neutral’ and is underpinned by a National Standard that to be a funded provider – regardless of whether they are in the public, private or third sector, or childminders – settings will have to meet.

Funding follows the child will help increase choice and flexibility for parents and carers whilst ensuring children benefit from high quality provision.

It means that parents and carers – including those of eligible two years olds – will be able to choose to use their child’s entitlement at any ELC provider that:

  • meets the National Standard 
  • has a place available and
  • is willing to enter into a contract with the local authority

The National Standard sets out what children and families should expect from their early learning experience regardless of where they access their child’s funded hours.

The National Standard will be introduced in full from August 2021. In the meantime, it is expected that the majority of the National Standard should still be deliverable, although some flexibility will be required on certain aspects.

Further information is provided in the Interim Guidance on Funding Follows the Child and National Standard requirements for settings and local authorities. 

Helping ELC providers meet the National Standard

We have published operating guidance detailing how settings delivering the funded entitlement can meet the National Standard.

We have also published a frequently asked questions document for local authorities and funded providers.

Supporting technical guidance is also available covering business sustainability, sustainable rates and transition options guidance on contracting.

We developed Funding Follows the Child in partnership with COSLA and local authorities, through a Service Models Working Group, with the final approach informed by a consultation, and a supporting programme of engagement with stakeholders, in 2018.

ELC workforce

To create capacity for the increase in ELC workforce required to deliver the 1140 hours expansion, since 2017 we have increased training opportunities and routes into all parts of the sector, resulting in a record workforce of over 37,000.

To support this, we have run several bursts of a national recruitment campaign to attract people to a career in ELC, linked to our national childcare careers website, which has a Live Jobs Feed, as well as a range of information about routes into ELC and childminding, and career pathways. 

And we have worked with the Scottish Funding Council and Skills Development Scotland to create additional capacity in the college, university and work-based learning sectors to train the additional staff required for the ELC expansion.

As well as creating new employment opportunities, the expansion of funded ELC provides an opportunity to increase the diversity of the childcare workforce, including attracting more males and people from diverse ethnic communities into the sector.

Pay and conditions

We understand the importance of promoting fair work practices across the ELC sector, including ensuring that staff are fairly remunerated.

Public sector staff working in ELC already receive the Living Wage, and we want to see all childcare workers delivering the funded entitlement across all sectors paid at least this from 2020.

To support this we will provide local authorities with sufficient funding to allow them to agree sustainable rates with funded providers in the private and third sectors.

We will also provide targeted advice and support to providers on implementing Fair Work practices.   

Early learning support for deprived communities

We have been working with local authorities to ensure that nurseries in Scotland’s most deprived areas benefit from an equity and excellence lead (an additional graduate).

These are highly qualified posts, that can be either a teacher or early years graduate with or working towards, for example the BA in Childhood Practice. 

Equity and excellence lead role

The role of equity and excellence lead is primarily focused on leading support for the most disadvantaged children to close the attainment gap.

This involves working directly with children and does not focus on managerial responsibilities e.g. administration and payroll.

Another key role is to lead and support pedagogy in a setting, upskilling fellow practitioners.

Leads are not tied to the settings’ adult-child ratios like other staff and therefore have greater flexibility and reflection time for this purpose. Local authorities have been given freedom to utilise leads depending on their local needs and the leads experience, therefore the roles focus may differ across settings.

Outdoor play and learning

Outdoor play and learning is an integral, every day, part of ELC in Scotland. 

We know the benefits of high quality outdoor play on children’s positive physical and mental development. It is our vision that children in Scotland’s ELC sector will soon spend as much time outdoors as they do indoors. 

To support this we will be working with practitioners to develop strong communities of practice, enabling these high quality experiences to become the norm.

During the COVID-19 pandemic we funded the charity Living Classrooms £159,000 to expand their Virtual Nature School. The programme trained ELC practitioners to deliver nature based play sessions, supporting children and families who were unable to attend their settings. 

To support local authorities with their use of outdoor play and learning, Scottish Government and the Children and Young People’s Improvement Collaborative (CYPIC) are running an Improvement Practicum from Autumn 2020.  Local Authorities will shortly be invited to apply for a place in the practicum which will use improvement methodology to develop the use of the outdoors in early learning and childcare settings.

In 2018-2020 we provided more than £860,000 of funding to the charity Inspiring Scotland, to work with local authorities and the ELC sector to expand outdoor learning spaces for children. Together with Inspiring Scotland, we published Scotland’s Coalition for Outdoor Play and Learning position statement which commits the signatories to embedding playing and learning outdoors as an everyday activity and to celebrate it as a fundamental part of growing up in Scotland.  

Guidance for ELC practitioners

We have produced a guide for ELC practitioners, Out to Play, which provides practical advice on setting up and delivering outdoor spaces. With the support of Inspiring Scotland, we will be updating this guidance in 2020 with additional materials to support the Out of School Care, Childminding and Additional Support Needs sectors. 

We have also published design guidance for the provision of high quality outdoor spaces for early learning and childcare and out of school care settings.

There is also a range of resources on Education Scotland’s National Improvement Hub to provide support for professional development in outdoor learning across the 3-18 curriculum. 

Personal hygiene of children from 1 to 3 years. Baby care and water treatments | Mamovediya

Personal hygiene of a child is understood as a set of useful skills of neatness and cleanliness, aimed primarily at maintaining and strengthening his health, and preventing diseases. The most important thing is to keep the child’s body clean, his things, toys, in a word, everything that surrounds him.

Regular skin care is necessary because the baby’s skin is very delicate and easily damaged. The slightest errors in care – the child was not washed in time, wrapped up – and diaper rash, prickly heat immediately appear, causing a burning sensation and itching, sometimes becoming the cause of the child’s restless behavior.

A child’s day should begin and end with washing and rinsing. In addition, during the day, you can repeatedly wash and wash the baby as needed. When washing, roll up the sleeves of a shirt or dress so that the baby does not wet them.

From the age of two, the child can be given the opportunity to wash himself. Usually babies experience great pleasure splashing in the water, and this desire of the baby should be used to form a useful skill.

Be sure to show how to properly wash your hands, wash your face, use soap and a towel. The kid should get used to washing his hands before every meal – this is the first of the most useful hygiene skills, it should be fixed as early as possible – in our time, unfortunately, the diseases of “dirty hands” have not yet disappeared.

Bathing a child is an important hygiene procedure. For babies aged 1 year and older, it is recommended at least 2 times a week before bed at night. After a year, the baby can be bathed in the bath, and a shower is useful for a child over two years old. When bathing, the baby’s body is washed with a washcloth, sponge or terry mitten with soap. Then rinse and wipe dry with a towel specially allocated for this.

On days when the baby is not bathed, before going to bed, be sure to wash him and wash his feet. Only after carrying out these indispensable procedures, you can put the child to sleep at night.

Teach your baby to water procedures that pursue a hygienic purpose: in the morning – washing the upper half of the body, and in the evening – the lower.

Few of the children willingly accept cutting of nails and hair, nevertheless their hygienic significance is great. Nails should be cut in the same way for both boys and girls as needed, using small scissors with curved ends.

Most parents trust hairdressers to cut their hair. In large cities there are special children’s hairdressers, where they make neat and modern haircuts for boys and girls.

However, for many girls, their parents keep their hair long, even though it gives them more trouble than a short haircut. It is necessary to take care of the baby’s long hair skillfully, without causing her discomfort when combing and washing her hair. Pain during these procedures can cause a girl’s persistent negative reaction and make it difficult to care for her hair.

When washing hair, make sure that soap does not get on the child’s face and eyes. To do this, tilt your baby’s head back and, in this position, wash the soap out of the hair with a shower or running tap water. It is better to comb the hair after washing when it is wet – they are less tangled and the child is not so hurt.

It is of great hygienic importance to educate the child in the skills of accuracy during meals, the ability to use a napkin . Teach your child to rinse his mouth after eating, freeing him from food debris. The kid should be able to brush his teeth with a children’s toothbrush, special powder or paste. In addition, he must be taught how to use a handkerchief. The child should have his own handkerchief and use it not only when there is a need to wipe his nose, mouth or hands, but also be able to cover himself with a handkerchief or palm when sneezing and coughing.

Adult caregivers should also practice basic personal hygiene, as this is very important for their baby’s health.

First of all, you need to monitor your health: lead a proper lifestyle, play sports, eliminate bad habits, observe the correct daily routine .

Every morning you should do morning exercises, monitor your oral cavity – brush your teeth at least 2 times a day for two minutes, rinse your mouth after each meal, thereby preventing dental disease or bad breath.

Only healthy persons may take care of the child. If one of the parents falls ill, then the baby should be isolated from him until recovery occurs. Dishes of adult family members should be stored separately from children’s in order to protect the child from possible infection in time.

The apartment where the baby lives should be clean, light and well ventilated. Wet cleaning of the premises should be carried out regularly. The mother and father of the child must carefully monitor the cleanliness of their body, hands, clothes. Coming home from work, you can not immediately approach the baby and even more so take him in your arms until you change your work clothes for home clothes, wash your hands and face.

Caregivers of small children should keep their nails short. Long nails, firstly, can easily injure thin delicate children’s skin, and secondly, dirt and a large number of a wide variety of microbes often accumulate under them, which can cause diseases of the child.

If you have to work with dirt, use gloves that protect your hands well. To prevent irritation, cleanly washed hand skin after work is recommended to be lubricated with any nourishing cream.

Make it a rule when you come home to change shoes, change into home clothes, wash your face and only after that take the child in your arms.

It is very important to take care of your appearance so that at home, as well as at work, you are always neatly dressed and combed. Your smart and neat appearance makes a good impression on the child, shows him a positive example of behavior.

Remember that only daily and regular hygienic education and parental control can achieve the formation and consolidation of the child’s ability to observe the rules of personal hygiene.

Read online “Your baby. Child care from birth to one year”, Natalia Ivanova – LitRes

Introduction. WONDER OF NATURE

A newborn baby is an amazing creature. Weak and helpless, he is able to endure stress that would overwhelm an adult with relative ease.

It’s no joke to suddenly find yourself in a completely unusual external environment, and even if necessary, instantly switch to a new way of breathing, blood circulation, and then nutrition!

He is still very small, but this small fragile body contains a powerful growth potential. His digestive organs are able to absorb 600-700 g of mother’s milk per day – this is a fifth of his body weight!

A newborn comes into the world with a sufficient supply of various reflexes. It is worth touching a finger to his lips, and he pulls them out, preparing to start sucking. If you drop some sweet solution on his tongue, he will suck it in, smacking his lips, and vice versa: getting sour or salty into the baby’s mouth will cause a backlash – he will wrinkle, scream, try to clear his throat. A loud sudden sound will make him alert, he will wrinkle his forehead, as if listening, get worried.

The baby distinguishes smells and recognizes his mother by the smell of milk, which is associated for him with pleasant sensations. But the most amazing thing is that the newborn has personality and character! Recent studies have shown how different the reactions of newborns to the same stimuli can be, how different, even in completely healthy children, the level of motor activity, the intensity of expression of emotions, the rhythm of physiological cycles.

Based on a number of such indicators, it is possible with a fairly high degree of probability to predict the future behavior of the child: whether he will grow up docile, sociable, cheerful or overly excitable, emotional, impulsive. In other words, will he become an “easy” or “difficult” child. But knowing a newborn is not enough to predict his life path. A lot depends on what his parents will be like. After all, you see, parents can also be “easy”, that is, loving, patient, calm, able to surround the child with tenderness, create a warm, invariably friendly atmosphere in the house, or “difficult” – nervous, irritable, overly strict and demanding of the child or overprotective of him.


These difficult, but overall exciting 9 months are coming to an end! Expecting a baby, parents are completely immersed in pleasant chores. After all, there is so much to do: pick up clothes, buy a crib, a stroller, put the apartment in order, etc.

Some parents try to stock up on clothes and baby care items in advance, which causes great damage to the family budget. Therefore, before you rush to storm children’s stores, carefully think through everything to the smallest detail. The following are guidelines to help you create your initial action plan.

Clothes for your baby

When going shopping or starting knitting, remember that any child grows quickly and a blouse that seemed to fit just a week ago, tomorrow is too small for him. Regardless of the date of birth of the child, you should thoroughly stock up on warm clothes, since in the first days of life the child does not tolerate temperature changes and even a slight cold snap can negatively affect his health.

When preparing a dowry for a baby, each family proceeds from its own material resources, but it is necessary to have enough clothes so that they can be washed and ironed regularly. As a rule, the list of clothes for a newborn includes five undershirts, up to ten warm flannel and approximately 20-25 thin cotton diapers, three or four bonnets (if the house is cool, they should be warm), a warm blanket for sleeping and walking.

The choice of duvet depends on your individual preferences. It can be woolen, wadded or on a synthetic winterizer. A blanket on a synthetic winterizer is advantageous in that it can be washed quite often and it does not lose its original appearance. A woolen blanket is much warmer, but quickly “rolls up” and looks unattractive after several washes.

The above list of clothing is indicative only. In each family, clothes are sewn or bought according to their own financial capabilities, tastes, traditions of raising children in a particular environment. The main requirements for a child’s clothing are convenience and hygiene. The diaper is a piece of gauze folded in several layers. It can be rectangular or triangular in shape. The second option, as time has shown, is preferable, since it is the simplest and most convenient to use.

By now, ready-made diapers made from synthetic materials have already won the trust of many mothers, but these care items should not be used around the clock. Even the most expensive and high quality diapers can irritate your baby’s skin. Try to minimize the use of diapers if you have a son, as prolonged exposure to them leads to overheating of the genitals. Therefore, it is advisable to use ready-made diapers only for walking or for going to the doctor.

After picking up clothes for a small family member, they should be washed and ironed on both sides. Many years of experience suggests that it is better to sew undershirts, bonnets and diapers from cotton fabric that has already been in use.

Care items

A small family member should have separate care items that must be purchased in advance. Currently, in specialized stores you can buy a ready-made kit with all the care items, but it is easy to assemble it yourself.

Among the necessary items are a separate basin or bath for bathing, which should not be used by the rest of the family, a ladle for dousing, a water thermometer. To care for the baby, you will also need a terry sheet or a large towel, sponge, oilcloth, sterile cotton wool.

Include a comb with non-scratching teeth, scissors, a syringe for newborns, pipettes for eyes and nose, and a rubber heating pad. Pay attention also to bottles for artificial feeding. There should be at least two of them: for the mixture (milk) and for water. The glass bottles used by our grandmothers are gradually falling into disuse, and they are being replaced by plastic ones with a variety of designs. They are much safer to use and therefore more durable.

There are currently two types of teats sold with plastic bottles: silicone and latex. The second option is considered the most convenient, since a nipple made of this material will last much longer.

A wide variety of bath products are now on the market. Remember that children’s skin, and especially the skin of a newborn, is extremely sensitive to various chemical compounds, so you should only use special baby soap and shampoo. To disinfect water, you need to stock up on potassium permanganate, and to soften the skin of a child after bathing, use baby cream and sterilized vaseline or vegetable oil. The necessary items also include powder, which softens and soothes irritated skin well.

Stroller and crib

It is better to buy a baby cot in advance, as it immediately becomes necessary to place it correctly. Today there is a huge variety of cribs, but in fact they are all variants of one model. A bed with a reclining side wall is extremely convenient to use, since in this case you do not need to additionally purchase a special changing table: the diaper and diaper can be changed right in the bed.

The material from which the crib is made practically does not matter, the main thing is that it is stable, safe and easy to care for. In order to protect the child from flies and mosquitoes, in the summer it is advisable to hang a canopy made of light fabric over the crib, which will additionally protect against drafts and bright light.

Many parents feel that a stroller is not an important item for a baby and that it is also a significant investment. Do not spare the money, and she will pay for them. The baby can sleep in it if the weather is warm, and in winter it will reliably protect him from the cold wind. When buying a stroller, pay attention to the fact that it is high – this will prevent dust and exhaust gases from getting inside. Choose a stroller with soft springs to ensure a smooth and even ride.

It is unacceptable to buy a stroller with low sides: over time, the child will start to sit up and may fall out of it. An important aspect is the internal coating. It should be made of washable material of a soft color.

Car Seat and Playpen

Car seat will be needed as your baby grows and moves more. In this case, you can not do without a chair. In the first time after the birth of a child, you can use the cradle from the stroller, but it is inconvenient from a safety point of view.

When buying a seat, be sure to try it on in your car (some models are not suitable for all brands). It is also important to secure the seat well before driving.

Some companies offer a car seat combined with a stroller. Usually this chair is for the smallest, from about birth to six months. The chair is semi-sitting, equipped with a comfortable handle, and the child in such a chair can be carried along the street, taken with you to visit, to the store, placed in the kitchen while you are preparing dinner. True, such models are not cheap.

The playpen becomes an urgent need already at the age of 3-4 months. By this time, the baby is quite actively beginning to crawl on his back, pushing off with his feet from a hard surface. Being in bed all the time is boring for him, and the playpen gives new impressions. In addition, the playpen can be placed, for example, in the kitchen, and the child will be able to watch his mother, and she will be calm for him.

If the bottom of the arena is covered with oilcloth, in warm weather the baby can be put on one diaper undressed, which will have a very favorable effect on the condition of his skin.

By about 6 months, when the baby begins to actively crawl and shows real skill in this new skill, the playpen should be used less and less, gradually transferring the baby to the floor. After all, the space of the arena is very limited, and there are few goals for research in it. But do not be discouraged – the arena will still come in handy for you: when traveling to the country or traveling, it can be successfully used as a crib. Of course, this applies to a small foldable playpen that easily fits in the trunk of a car.

Children’s table, high chair, jumpers and walkers

Children’s high chair and table are indispensable when the baby begins to sit on his own. Until this moment, it is not recommended to seat the baby on a highchair. As for the models, then there are options. It is better not to purchase a wooden domestic chair, as it is very unstable and uncomfortable. If you have sufficient funds, it is better to invest in a good imported chair, which can take different positions in height, allows you to adjust the position of the table, tilt the footrest and, thanks to the oilcloth base, is easy to clean. The latter circumstance is very important when a child learns to independently wield a spoon. As for walkers and jumpers, the attitude of parents to these devices is ambiguous. Those who use them assure that they are very good, develop, delight the child and no negative consequences are observed.

Opponents of the use of walkers claim that they distort the legs and that the child begins to walk later. It is difficult to determine who is right, but one thing is clear: it is quite possible to do without walkers, as well as without jumpers. But really indispensable for parents leading an active lifestyle is the “kangaroo”, which is a convenient backpack for carrying children, which, taking into account the age of the baby, has a different design and, importantly, lasts a long time. At the same time, it can be hung both on the stomach and on the back, and the hands of mom or dad remain free.

Preparing the apartment for the birth of a child

Before the birth of a child, it is necessary to take care of the cleanliness of the apartment. Do not try to achieve absolute sterility, you still will not succeed, and for the child it does not play any role. The main thing is that the apartment, and especially the room where the child will be, is clean.

In some cases, the nursery room is being renovated. Before you bring the baby from the maternity hospital, be sure to ventilate the room, because even a slight smell of paint can lead to poisoning of the newborn.

In the event that you did not make repairs in the room, you should still carry out a general cleaning before the birth of the child. Choose a corner for the crib in advance: it should stand in a warm, well-ventilated place, as far as possible from common rooms.

Do not place the crib near a window or central heating radiator. The child needs a constant supply of fresh air, at the same time it is impossible for the crib to stand in a draft.

After rearranging the furniture, thoroughly clean all corners of the apartment. First of all, pay attention to carpets and upholstered furniture, as they accumulate the most dust.

Choose a bright room for your newborn, where the rays of sunlight can freely penetrate. It is better to remove heavy dark curtains and flower pots from the windows. In this case, more sunlight will penetrate into the room, which will have a beneficial effect on the health of the child.


The first acquaintance with a newborn child takes place in the maternity hospital, where usually the mother cannot properly examine her baby, nor stay with him as much as she wants. It is possible to get to know a new family member closer only at home.

First look

The appearance of a newborn may surprise and even frighten parents, as the child is completely different from the common images of beautiful chubby babies that can be seen everywhere.

Newborn’s face is often puffy, swollen, sometimes wrinkled, reddish or yellowish. The body of the baby is covered with a gentle soft fluff.

Baby’s yellowish skin tone is a sign of neonatal jaundice. Under the supervision of a doctor, this is not a cause for concern. Jaundice is associated with increased production by the liver during this period of the coloring bile pigment – bilirubin.

The child’s head may have quite thick and long hair. However, most often there is little hair, sometimes they are absent. Do not be surprised at this: each child has his own individual characteristics of the body, the presence or absence of hair at the time of birth does not mean anything.

The head circumference of a newborn child is usually 34-36 cm. The head is often disproportionately large compared to the body, is 1 / 4 part of the body length, but this discrepancy disappears with time. The shape of the head can also be different: in some children it is round, in others it is slightly elongated, sometimes asymmetrical. The facial part of the skull is small.

On the head of a newborn there are discrepancies between the individual bones of the skull, between which there are fontanelles – areas of soft tissue. The largest fontanel is located above the forehead of the child. Lightly touching it, you can feel the pulsation of the vessels of the brain – light tremors. The fontanel is tightened with a membrane and has a diamond shape. It is located at the junction of the frontal and parietal bones. Behind this fontanel, at the junction of the parietal and occipital bones, there is a small triangular fontanel.

With age, ossification occurs in the membranes of the fontanelles. A small fontanel is completely overgrown by 3 months, a large one – by 12–15. The bones of the skull fuse by 3-4 months. Full fusion of the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal bones of the skull occurs in the 3-4th year of a child’s life.

The color of the eyes in newborns is most often blue, since there is no coloring pigment in the iris yet. Over time, the child’s eyes will acquire the color inherent in them by nature, inherited from one of the parents.

The spine of a newborn is soft, the vertebrae are cartilaginous, so the spine does not curve like in an adult. Its limbs are rather thin, the legs, compared with the body, are short.

The baby’s chest is barrel-shaped, it becomes flat later. His ribs are soft, so the body of the newborn is very supple and flexible.

In the first weeks after birth, the child tends to maintain the position in which he was in the womb, so most often his limbs are bent and pressed to the body. You should not sharply straighten the baby’s legs when swaddling, as this can harm his soft bones.

A healthy newborn baby responds to hot and cold touch and has developed taste. For example, when feeding with sweets, it expresses pleasure, and when it tastes bitter or sour, it frowns or cries.

A full-term baby from birth has well developed all unconditioned reflexes – sucking, swallowing, reaction to bright light and a grasping reflex.

If you put a finger in a newborn’s hand, he will grab it and even hang on to it for a while.

A newborn baby is not yet able to control his body, so he may be frightened by his own sudden movements or sharp sounds. Reacting to this, the baby begins to cry, frantically move his limbs.

The body temperature of a newborn baby is somewhat dependent on the ambient temperature, which must be taken into account when swaddling and changing the baby. Hypothermia and overheating are very harmful for a small child, as they create favorable conditions for the occurrence of inflammatory diseases.

On the inside of the lips of a newborn baby there are peculiar ridges. These rollers are designed for sucking. The mucous membrane of the oral cavity is colored bright red because the blood vessels are located very close to its surface. On closer examination, yellowish-white dots can be seen on the midline of the hard palate.

After birth, the child adapts for some time to the new conditions of life outside the mother’s womb. Getting used to the new environment, his body is rebuilt. In this case, the child is in a state where it may seem that he is sick. You should not worry because you think that the baby is not all right. The transitional state of newborns is quite a common phenomenon that every child experiences in the first days of his life.

All babies, regardless of gender, experience a sexual crisis in the first weeks of life, due to the fact that maternal hormones enter the child’s body. The mammary glands swell, sometimes a liquid similar to milk is released from them when pressed. In boys, the scrotum swells, in girls, discharge from the genitals appears. These phenomena gradually pass by themselves, without requiring any treatment. If the sexual crisis has dragged on, you can apply a warm, dry bandage to the chest or genitals of the child.

Some babies are born with grayish pigment spots on the buttocks, thighs or coccyx. These spots can be of various shapes and sizes. They do not rise above the surface of the skin. Do not worry, in the first years of life, these spots disappear. Why they occur is still unknown.

Due to the fact that the sweat glands of a newborn child are not yet developed and cannot function to their full potential, they often become blocked. From this, yellowish-white pimples the size of a grain of millet may appear on the face of the baby. Most often, these pimples are located on the wings of the nose, sometimes on the cheeks or forehead of the child.

A significant number of newborns in the first weeks of life can see redness on the feet and hands. It is caused by dilation of the capillaries in the extremities, which is called physiological catarrh of the skin. Over time, the redness goes away.

Some babies have red spots on the forehead, back of the head or eyelids. If you press lightly on such a spot with your finger, it turns pale, and then appears again. As the child grows, these spots become paler, but when the child screams, cries, or if he is tense, these spots appear again on the skin. In a small number of children, they remain for a long time, in the majority they quickly disappear.

The digestive system of newborns in the first weeks, even months, adapts to the new conditions of a child’s life, like his entire body. In this regard, deviations are observed in the work of the gastrointestinal tract.

Often the child spits up food after feeding, sometimes vomiting occurs. Regurgitation occurs as a result of the fact that part of the food after feeding rises from the stomach, which is not located in the same way as in adults – horizontally, but is in a semi-vertical position, as a result of which food easily moves in the opposite direction. Regurgitation occurs in almost all newborns: some after every feeding, some only occasionally. This phenomenon is quite common and does not require any treatment.

Vomiting after feeding often occurs in nervous, excitable children. There is nothing unusual about this either. If the child is not sick, growing well and gaining weight, you should not worry about vomiting, but you need to pay attention to its nature. In the event that vomiting does not go away for a long time, especially if it is plentiful – a fountain, you should immediately call a doctor, as this may be a sign of some kind of disease.

The question often arises whether to feed a child after vomiting. You need to pay attention to how the baby behaves. If he is calm and happy, you do not need to feed him, and if he cries, then he is hungry and should be fed.

If your baby is prone to vomiting, you should take this into account and try to feed in a calm environment. Nothing should disturb the baby, he should be comfortable in your arms, it is necessary to exclude the appearance of strangers and noise in the room during feeding.

After feeding, many children experience incomprehensible anxiety, the child cries, randomly moves his legs. Most often, the reason for this behavior of the newborn is bloating. In some cases, bloating occurs because the child swallowed too much air along with food. In order for excess air to come out, it is necessary to hold the baby in an upright position immediately after feeding for some time.

Sometimes babies hiccup after feeding. The causes of hiccups are not exactly established, perhaps the child hiccups because he swallowed air. Sometimes hiccups occur due to hypothermia. Stopping hiccups is not easy. Most often, children hiccup for a long time. It is helpful to give the baby some warm water or help him burp the extra air.

The body of a baby has no fundamental differences from the body of an adult: it consists of the same organs that are located in the same way as in adults; the functions performed by the organs of an infant are the same as in an adult. However, the body of the child has some differences.

Caring for a newborn baby [from the first days] – a complete guide for parents

The first days of a newborn’s life: what you need to know

The nuances of caring for a baby require attention and patience from adults, because a delicate children’s body is an easy target for bacteria and microbes. We will analyze how to care for a newborn baby in the first month step by step so that the baby grows up healthy and happy.

How to care for your newborn’s skin

One of the important tasks in caring for a newborn in the first month of life is to maintain the good condition of delicate and sensitive skin prone to dryness. Simple recommendations for caring for a newborn will help to cope with common problems of children’s skin.

Do not rush to immediately buy the entire range of cosmetics for babies: simple water is enough to care for the skin of a newborn in the first months. If necessary, you can add a couple of drops of potassium permanganate, string or chamomile to the bath – but you should not do this often.

As the baby develops, you can gradually add care products: three main positions will be enough for this:

  • Gentle cleansing: gel, cream or oil, which will help to gently remove impurities, moisturize and soothe the skin. All these properties are possessed by products from the Lipikar(1) line. For example, Lipikar Gel Lavant(2), a soothing shower gel with protective properties for sensitive skin of babies, children and adults, is an all-in-one cleanser for the whole family. Choose a package with a dispenser: it is very convenient for caring for a newborn, as you can use the product with one hand while bathing.
  • Moisturizing cream for treating the skin after bathing. Look for light textures that are quickly absorbed, intensively moisturize and restore. With Shea Butter, La Roche-Posay Thermal Water and Niacinamide, Lipikar Lait(3) Hypoallergenic Milk formula nourishes and hydrates for up to 48 hours, providing long-lasting comfort to even the driest, most sensitive and delicate skin.
  • Diaper cream with antibacterial ingredients that improves skin repair and soothes. The cream can be applied after every diaper change to prevent or relieve irritation.

How to care for your baby’s umbilical cord

The rest of the umbilical cord falls off 4-6 days after birth, exposing a small wound. The umbilical wound is the most vulnerable area on the baby’s body, it can serve as a gateway for bacteria and microbes. In the first days of a newborn’s life, it is necessary to treat frequently. Care instructions will be given by a doctor or nurse. What else do you need to know about caring for an umbilical wound? If it has not healed after 10-14 days, this is an occasion to contact a pediatrician.

Newborn scalp care

The formation of milk (seborrheic) crusts is a natural process, they appear in every second baby up to a year and do not cause discomfort. In the first months, the sebaceous and sweat glands of the baby do not fully cope with the load. Excess sebum mixes with dead skin cells and forms yellowish growths. This condition, like any adaptation mechanism, passes over time – but if the crusts interfere with the care of the baby, they can be removed.

  • Apply a little oil (eg Vaseline) to the head and put on a cap for 30-60 minutes.
  • Remove the cap and gently massage the affected area with your fingertips.
  • Bathe the baby: the water will gently wash away the softened crusts.
  • If not all the crusts have come off on their own, do not remove them – repeat the procedure after a few days.

Under no circumstances should the scabs be combed dry – the risk of damaging the skin and causing infection is too high. As you have already noticed, the rules for caring for a newborn are united by the main principle – strict adherence to safety precautions.

How to properly clean your baby’s ears and nose

The baby’s nose is cleaned with a tightly twisted cotton tourniquet: insert it into the nostril and carefully turn around the axis. If the scabs are dry and won’t budge, use baby nasal drops or some warm petroleum jelly to soften them. Use cotton swabs to clean your nose with caution: cotton wool can remain in the nasal passages, and the plastic base can damage the delicate mucous membrane.

When caring for a newborn baby, you should clean your ears very carefully, without getting into the ear canals. It is necessary to wipe only the auricle and the area behind the ears.

How to care for the eyes of a newborn

Newborn care recommendations include daily eye cleaning to help prevent infections. As a rule, crusts and small lumps of white discharge accumulate in the corners of the eyes in babies. In the morning, after waking up, the eyes of an infant are treated with a cotton pad dipped in warm boiled water, from the outer corner to the bridge of the nose. For each eye – a separate piece of cotton wool.

How to cut baby’s nails

Newborn nails are very sharp, the baby can easily injure the face and body, so 10-14 days after birth, it’s time to start cutting them every 5-7 days – or more often if the nails grow too quickly.

It is easiest to trim your nails after bathing, when they are soft and steamed, and the baby himself is relaxed and in a good mood. Take children’s scissors with rounded ends, treat with alcohol and cut the nails with confident movements: on the hands – in the form of a semicircle, on the legs – in a straight line to avoid ingrown corners.

Intimate hygiene for girls and boys

It is necessary to wash the baby from the first days of life before each diaper change. It is most convenient to do this in the sink, under running water – and use wet wipes only outside the home. Do not rush to put on a diaper: arrange air baths for your baby so that the skin folds dry out. Apply cream under the diaper, do a light massage.

How to care for a newborn girl to protect the genitals from the penetration of pathogens? Wash it from front to back – dirt from the anus will not enter the vagina and urethra. Treat small labia with a cotton swab with vaseline oil, gently removing white discharge. They are completely normal for a baby, but can cause itching and redness if not removed daily. Caring for a newborn boy is much easier: you can wash it in any direction.

Bathing tips for newborns

Bathing for the first time can be exciting and awkward, but over time it becomes a favorite ritual that creates a special bond between parents and baby. Here are some simple rules and tips to help you take care of your newborn while bathing:

  • The best time to bathe is in the evenings, before feeding, as warm water relaxes the baby and helps him fall asleep faster. But if after the bath the baby, on the contrary, becomes more cheerful, it is better to transfer the bath to the morning hours. The main thing is to bathe at the same time every day in order to develop a habit and normalize the regimen.
  • It is most convenient to bathe a baby in a special bath, especially with a slide. An older baby from two months old can splash in a large bathtub, which must be thoroughly cleaned before each procedure.
  • The optimum water temperature for a baby is about 37°C so that it does not freeze and does not overheat, and the air in the bathroom is 24°C.
  • Bathe your newborn with a cleanser no more than 1-2 times a week to maintain the hydro-lipid mantle of the skin.
  • Before bathing, have a towel, clean clothes and necessary cosmetics at arm’s length so that you do not leave your child alone even for a split second.
  • Gently submerge the baby in the water, first the legs and then the whole body. First wash the baby, then rinse the arms and legs, paying attention to each skin fold. Clean the perineum last.
  • The optimal duration of the first bath is 5 minutes. For older children, it is up to 20-30 minutes. Bathing frequency – from 3 to 7 times a week.
  • After bathing, gently pat your baby’s skin to remove excess moisture. Do not crush under any circumstances! Apply moisturizer, put on a diaper, clean clothes – and you can get ready for bed!

It is difficult to remember the peculiarities of caring for a newborn at the first time, but gradually you will begin to easily cope with the child, as if you always knew how to do it. Ask for support from loved ones, take time to relax – and get as much pleasure from the new stage of life as possible!

Baby skin care: baby skin care products, newborn skin care rules

What is the most important thing for every mom? Of course, this is health. The good health of her children. And it begins with personal hygiene, which is provided first by the baby’s parents, and then by the grown child himself.

Features of the child’s skin

Complete care of children’s skin is possible only if you know its features well.

In infants, the skin is in the process of development. They are still immature and just in the process of growing. In newborns and infants under 1 year of age, the epidermis (the layer that performs a protective function) is 2-3 times thinner than in older children and adults. Therefore, the skin of a very young child is more delicate and sensitive, which means that the likelihood of irritation in places of friction is very high.

Sweat and sebaceous glands of newborns have a special structure. In a small child, the sweat glands are located very densely, and their number is sometimes 6-7 times more than in an adult. Such features can lead to their underdevelopment, which negatively affects the thermoregulation of the body. In fact, children under 6 months of age do not have this function. That is why there is a high risk of hypothermia or overheating of the child when the temperature changes. In addition, in the heat, children develop irritation and itching. Sweat glands fully develop only by the end of the 1st year of a child’s life. The sebaceous glands in children also have features. First, they are much larger than in adults. Secondly, they usually function with some margin. Excessive secretions of the sebaceous glands sometimes lead to a number of problems. For example, if this process is very active in the head area, then so-called milk crusts can form in the crown region, and small cysts can form near the nose and areas located next to it. With the growth of the child, the work of the sebaceous glands is normalized.

Skin of a child has a developed network of capillaries and increased vascular permeability . This feature, on the one hand, increases the risk of infection spreading through the bloodstream, and on the other hand, promotes effective gas exchange. We can say that the child literally breathes through the skin. In other words, the protective function of the epidermis of a newborn is inferior to that of an adult, but the respiratory function is much superior. This feature largely determines that babies have a beautiful pink-pearl skin tone.

The stratum corneum of a young child contains a large amount of water and very few lipids. This feature leads to the fact that water-soluble substances pass through children’s skin more easily than through the skin of adults. In addition, infants have significantly developed subcutaneous fat. The ratio of hypodermis mass to body weight in babies is five times higher than in adults. This suggests that when exposed to harmful substances, the intoxication of the child’s body will be stronger and develop faster than in an adult.

Skin newborns have an almost neutral pH of . In a child, it is approximately 6.5, and in an adult – 5.5. Nevertheless, this indicator in infants decreases quite quickly: during the first month of life, the pH reaches 5.5. The child has an acid mantle (a slightly acidic mixture of sweat and sebum), which provides protection against pathogens and creates conditions for the development of normal microflora. At the same time, it is quite sensitive to negative external influences and is easily damaged by applied preparations that are not intended for child skin care.

Before the age of six months, the melanin pigment in newborns is secreted in a very small volume. This fact suggests that the skin of the baby is practically defenseless against the action of UV rays.

Thus, children’s skin is very delicate, thin and easily vulnerable, susceptible to microbes and toxic substances, prone to water balance disorders, sensitive to negative environmental influences. That is why proper daily skin care for a child is of particular importance. It should be carried out using delicate means for children’s hygiene.

Basic hygiene procedures for children

Washing and washing hands . This procedure in the first months of a child’s life should be especially accurate. To do this, the face and hands of the newborn should be regularly wiped with swabs dipped in boiled water. To process each eye, you need to take a new cotton pad. From 5-6 months, the child can be washed with ordinary running water at room temperature without the use of tampons. From 2–2.5 years old, children need to be taught hygiene skills so that they learn to take care of their bodies on their own. The child should be able to properly wash, wash their hands before eating, after going to the toilet, as well as in case of any contamination (after walking, playing with sand, communicating with animals, etc.).

Bathing . Full-fledged water procedures can be started only after the umbilical cord falls off. In the first six months, when the baby’s skin is very tender and vulnerable, a hygienic bath should be done every day. Such a procedure not only ensures the cleanliness of the body, it contributes to the normalization of all skin functions, stimulation of blood circulation, strengthening of the nervous and immune systems, and psychomotor development of the child. Bathing babies older than 6 months can be done every other day, and after 1 year – 2 times a week. When reaching the age of 3, it is enough to take a bath once a week. Washing and washing the feet should be done daily.

Babies with an incompletely healed umbilical wound should be bathed in boiled water, sometimes a little potassium permanganate can be added. When the child gets stronger, ordinary tap water is drawn into the bath. It is very useful for babies to bathe in a decoction of herbs. Chamomile, nettle, string, lavender and juniper have anti-inflammatory and soothing effects. The baby bath before bathing the child must be washed with hot water and soap, then put a clean diaper or a special mat on its bottom. The temperature of the poured water should not exceed 36-37 ° C, and the air in the bathroom – 22 ° C (for children in the first months of life), later – 20 ° C. It is necessary to immerse the child in the bath very carefully, the head must be placed on the forearm.

In the first days of life, the child’s body should be washed by hand, a little later with a soft sponge or mitten. For this, ordinary water is used. Bathing babies using baby skin care products is not necessary every day, but 2-3 times a week. It is very important to ensure that water does not get into the eyes, ears and nose. First you need to wash the body of the child, then the head, and then wash with warm boiled water.

Wipe and care . After bathing the baby, you need to carefully wipe it with a soft towel, special attention should be paid to the folds. They can be treated with special baby skin care products. Ears and nose are cleaned with soft cotton swabs. Scissors with rounded tips are used to trim fingernails and toenails. They can be wiped with alcohol first. The bath after bathing should be thoroughly washed and dried.

Treatment of inguinal folds and buttocks . This is especially true for children who wear diapers. Under them, the skin is in very unpleasant conditions: the level of humidity is increased, there is not enough oxygen, in addition, tender places are rubbed and are constantly in contact with natural children’s secretions (urine and feces). In this regard, it is necessary to treat delicate areas with special means as regularly as changing a diaper. Moisture makes the baby’s skin vulnerable, so prolonged contact with it increases the likelihood of irritation. Before putting on a diaper, the child should be left without clothes for a while (arrange an “air bath” for him). MIRRA offers a specially developed product for baby skin care in especially delicate areas – DIAPER CREAM-GEL with zinc oxide and calendula.

Baby skin care products

We answered the question “how to provide the child with the necessary hygiene?”. Now you need to figure out in more detail what tools can be used for this purpose. The first thing that comes to mind for most parents is baby soap for baby skin care. It has been known for more than a dozen years, it was used by our mothers and grandmothers. It seems that everyone was always happy with him, because the children grew up normally. But today, scientists have decided to improve ordinary baby soap, as it has already been proven that its constant use damages the acid mantle. This is due to the fact that this tool always has an alkaline reaction, and therefore changes the pH of the skin (dries it).

It is better to refuse the use of ordinary soap for hygienic purposes (washing hands, bathing, caring for delicate places, etc.). For these purposes, we suggest using a modern cleanser: HYGIENIC FOAM for children. This NEW product in the BABY SKIN CARE series is specially designed for gentle and gentle cleansing of the skin of a child of any age. Foam can be used from the first days of a baby’s life. The soft surfactants included in its composition are excellent for children’s cosmetics. The pH of the foam is natural, so it does not irritate or dry out the baby’s sensitive skin.

The foam contains glyceryl oleic acid. This ingredient is produced from sunflower, in its structure it is similar to the natural components of sebum. In addition, it helps to strengthen and preserve the lipid layer of the baby’s skin. Foam is great for frequent use. It also contains healing extracts of aloe, chamomile and yarrow. They have anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, softening, analgesic, moisturizing, regenerating, soothing and wound healing effects. Such extracts have been known for a long time and are widely used for the manufacture of children’s cosmetics. As you know, proven products are the best choice in matters relating to the health of the child. In addition, the composition of the foam includes moisturizing ingredients (glycerin and urea) and an antioxidant (vitamin E). Thanks to the above ingredients, the product helps to maintain the natural protective function of the delicate skin of the child, while not affecting the mechanisms of self-regulation, self-defense and self-healing.

As a result, we note that careful care of the baby, as a rule, allows you to keep his skin healthy. And our cleansers (for example, HYGIENIC FOAM for children) will make daily hygiene procedures safer and more complete, and will also give mom happy moments of communication with her baby. You no longer have to look for something and worry for a long time, because the MIRRA children’s cosmetics from the BABY line perfectly complement and enhance each other’s action.

Oksana Ivanova
leading technologist, assistant of the department of technology of chemical-pharmaceutical and cosmetic products DI. Mendeleev.

1. Dribnokhod Yu.Yu. Cosmetology. Ed. 9th, add. and reworked. Rostov n / a: Phoenix, 2013. – 779 p.: ill. – (Secondary vocational education).

2. Margolina A.A., Hernandez E.I. New cosmetology. Volume I. M .: Firma CLAVEL LLC, 2005. – 424 p.: ill.

3. Goncharova Yu.A. Age anatomy, physiology and hygiene. Tutorial. Publishing and Printing Center of Voronezh State University, 2008.

P.S. While washing a very young child, you can cheer up with funny rhymes.

Water, water,

Wash my face,

To make the little eyes shine,

To make cheeks blush,

To laugh mouth,

To bite a tooth.

And an older child can have an entertaining education about personal hygiene. You can start it with a poem by M. Stelmakh “The stork is washing.”

On the water under the willow

Stork walks barefoot,

Because this bird is

Used to wash in the morning.

Touches a vine with its beak,

Dew shakes itself,

And shower silver

Washes the neck clean-clean

And does not whimper: “Oh, trouble,

Oh, cold water!”

Next, it is worth talking about the rules for caring for your body.

  1. Wash your face every morning. Water procedures include washing hands, face, neck and ears. They also need to be carried out after walks and at night.
  2. Wash your feet before going to bed . It is necessary to regularly clean the skin of the feet from sweat and dirt accumulated during the day.
  3. Wash your entire body at least once a week. You can bathe at home in a bath or shower, as well as in a sauna. To get rid of sweat, grease and dirt, you need to wash with warm water, rubbing the body with a washcloth with a hygiene product. After bathing, put on clean underwear.
  4. The hair must be rinsed very thoroughly. It is on them that a large amount of sebum, dust and dirt accumulates. After water procedures it is necessary to comb.
  5. Nails require careful care . Fingers should be neatly trimmed once a week, and toes should be trimmed once every 2 weeks. Taking care of these parts of the body is extremely important, as long nails accumulate dirt that is difficult to remove. In addition, you can scratch yourself and another person. Dirty nails are a sign of carelessness and slovenliness, such a person usually does not follow the rules of personal hygiene.
  6. It is important to keep your hands clean at all times . During the day, we touch a variety of objects (pencils, pens, books, notebooks, balls, doorknobs, etc.). Many people love petting pets. Often we may not see the microscopic particles of dirt that remain on our hands, but this does not mean that they are not there. If you later take bread, an apple or sweets with such hands, then the microbes will first get on the food, and with them into the body. And it threatens with poisoning.

It is important to remember that no rules for caring for one’s own body will teach a child to observe personal hygiene if his family does not set an example for him.

This material was prepared on the basis of the training program “Rules and Skills of Personal Hygiene”, compiled by Natalia Mirskaya, Candidate of Medical Sciences, Research Institute of Public Health and Health Management. THEM. Sechenov.

*When using the materials of the article, a hyperlink to the source is required

Similar products in the MIRRA catalog:
Baby cream with wheat germ flour and water lily / Diaper cream-gel with zinc oxide and calendula / Baby hygiene foam

Tips on how to calm a crying baby

Crying for a child is a way of communication, but despite its naturalness , it would be useful to try to calm a crying baby. It is logical that parents will have a question: “How to calm the child?” This may seem like a daunting task at times, but understanding the reasons will help you learn how to soothe a crying baby. Remember: you are doing great. We just want to give you some useful tips to help ease your worries.

If you have any questions or concerns about your baby’s crying, seek medical advice. Sometimes crying can be a sign of an existing medical condition, so it’s best to pay attention to any additional symptoms right away.

Why does your baby cry

Baby crying is not only natural but also expected, especially during the first three months of life. Babies usually cry for an hour every day for the first few weeks. At about six weeks old, your baby may cry for up to two hours a day, and from eight weeks on, again for about one hour a day. However, remember that all babies are different and cry differently! 1

Crying is a way of saying something is wrong. When it comes to learning how to soothe a crying baby, it’s important to understand what exactly is causing her anxiety. Your baby may cry if: 1

  • he is hungry;
  • baby has belching or bloating;
  • need a diaper change;
  • he wants to sleep;
  • wants to be picked up or rocked;
  • baby hot or cold;
  • baby has colic;
  • feels uncomfortable: wants to roll over, presses on diaper or clothes, or tight swaddling interferes with baby;
  • the baby is teething.

If your baby cries for more than three hours a day and more than three days a week, he may be suffering from colic. However, this is not a cause for panic, and there are several ways to soothe a child with colic. Find out here about colic, its symptoms, and how to soothe a baby with colic.

If you think reflux (regurgitation) may be the cause of your crying, you can learn more about the different types of reflux and how to manage it here.

Be sure to contact your baby’s doctor if your baby seems ill or has the following symptoms in addition to excessive crying: 1

  • fever;
  • shortness of breath or cough;
  • vomiting;
  • diarrhea;
  • rash;
  • crying worse when the child is picked up or moved;
  • increased irritability or lethargy.

How to soothe a crying baby

Once you have ruled out some potential causes of crying, you will have a better idea of ​​how to soothe your baby. The most important thing to remember is not to get upset and stay as calm as possible.

Here are some tips and advice on how to calm your baby: 2

1. Swaddle your baby.

One of the most useful techniques to soothe a crying baby is swaddling. When doing this, make sure that you do not cover the child’s head and do not overheat him. Don’t swaddle your baby too tight: swaddling too tightly can interfere with your baby’s natural body position, breathing, and blood circulation: your baby may not like it, causing him to cry. Don’t swaddle your baby when he starts to roll over, which usually happens around four months of age.

2. Take the child in your arms and comfort.

When your baby is crying, it’s natural for you to want to pick him up. And when your newborn cries for no reason, he probably wants to be picked up. If you’re trying to calm your baby at night, try keeping him upright or in a rocking chair until he falls asleep. Any gentle strokes or vibrations can be very soothing. You can also give your baby an ultra soft pacifier, which is recommended for soothing newborns. This pacifier will help your baby feel comfortable and safe.

Proper care requires certain rules and skills. In general, care activities are divided into daily and weekly. Naturally, this division is conditional. If your baby needs a certain procedure, then it can and should be done more often.

Daily childcare

Wash your baby every morning with warm boiled water. For washing, it is better to use cotton wool, but you can wipe the baby’s face with your hand.

Eye care

The baby’s eyes should be treated with a cotton pad previously moistened with boiled water. If you notice that the baby’s eyes are more dirty than usual, then use a solution of furacilin.

Washing the eyes of a child is carried out strictly from the outer corner of the eye to the inner. A new cotton pad should be used for each eye.

Take care of your baby’s organs of vision from birth. Under no circumstances should you allow yourself to look at the sun and generally avoid exposing your baby’s eyes to very bright light. This also applies to flash, you need to use it with extreme caution. You should not expose your child’s eyes to sudden changes in light; at night, you should use a floor lamp under a green shade or a table lamp.

Bathing and washing

Newborns should be washed in running water after each bowel movement. You can not wash the baby in a basin or bath – an infection can get into the genitourinary tract.

Girls are washed under a warm stream by hand strictly in the direction from front to back. It should be remembered that before starting the washing procedure, it is imperative to check the temperature of the water. After you have washed your baby, put it on the changing table and dry the baby’s skin with blotting movements. The folds of the baby can be smeared with a cotton swab dipped in baby cream or sterile sunflower oil.

Weekly care

Baby nose care

Newborns have very small nasal passages, so even a slight blockage can cause breathing difficulties.

Baby’s nasal passages can become clogged with dust, hairs from clothes or blankets, irritated by cigarette smoke, so they need to be cleaned with sterile cotton flagella.

The flagellum is soaked in vegetable or vaseline oil and inserted with rotational movements into the child’s nasal passage no more than a centimeter. Take a new flagellum for each nasal passage. Carefully monitor the purity of the air, try to prevent its pollution.

Baby ear care

The child’s hearing needs to be treated very carefully. Clean your baby’s ears regularly. If you observe sulfur emissions, there is no need to panic, this is a normal process. Together with it, dust and microorganisms come out of the outer ear. In fact, there is a process of self-purification. To avoid the appearance of sulfur plugs, excess sulfur must be removed with a clean cotton swab. Remember to do this carefully. Do not penetrate deep into the ear canals, otherwise you risk injuring the baby’s delicate skin or injuring the eardrum.

Nail care

Cut your child’s nails in time. It happens that some newborns are born with rather long nails, and if they are not cut, the baby risks scratching himself. Baby nails grow fast enough, so they should be trimmed often, otherwise they begin to bend and break. To cut your baby’s nails, use special baby tweezers or safety news. While cutting the nail, press the baby on the pad of the finger so as not to accidentally touch the skin. If the wound still happened, then a sterile bandage should be applied to the wound and held until the bleeding stops completely. It is best to cut nails when the baby is sleeping and completely relaxed.

Feeding schedule for 6 week old puppy: Creating a Puppy Feeding Schedule

Опубликовано: November 29, 2020 в 10:12 am


Категории: Miscellaneous

Creating a Puppy Feeding Schedule

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Fueling your puppy’s way in the world, a few months at a time.

You have a new puppy. Maybe you adopted your little buddy or your dog gave birth. Either way, you have a fluffy little bundle of fur to feed (and feed properly). A puppy feeding schedule helps.

Just like human babies, how you feed your dog will have long-lasting consequences. “The feeding habits started as puppies will likely linger far into adulthood,” says Dr. Jennifer Koehl, veterinarian and writer of VMDiva. It is important to choose the type of food you want to feed your dog, whether it is dry canned or fresh.

It is also vital to start out with a feeding schedule. “Dogs thrive on predictability,” says Dr. Chris Bern, veterinarian and writer of A Vet’s Guide to Life. But it can’t be set in stone from day one. Like your puppy, the feeding schedule will grow.

Birth to 6 Weeks
The best food for newborn puppies is their mother’s milk. Be sure to start the mother on puppy food. “Not only does this give the mother extra nutrition,” says Dr. Bern. “But as the puppies begin to practice eating, they will sample their mother’s food, making transitioning to puppy food easier.”

If the mother is not around, feeding a newborn puppy becomes dicier. Several dog milk substitutes are available, so consult your veterinarian about the best options. At birth, puppies need to be fed every two hours. “Not only do they need constant feeding,” Dr. Bern warns. “But they also need help going to the bathroom.” The mother dog will lick each puppy’s genital region to stimulate the elimination. “People will need to use a warm washcloth to rub the puppy’s anal area to help it go to the bathroom,” Dr. Bern says.

6 Weeks to 4 Months
By six weeks, your puppy should be fully weaned and eating puppy food. At this age, your puppy feeding schedule should involve feedings two to four times a day, depending on the breed. Small breed puppies, like Yorkshire terriers, are prone to hypoglycemia and should have more food available during the first weeks. But don’t leave food out forever — it’s important to set meal times to help with housebreaking.

“Dogs will have colon contractions about 20 to 30 minutes after they eat,” Dr. Bern says. This gives you both the opportunity to make sure that he is outside. Refer to your puppy food for the correct amount of food for your dog’s breed or size. “The amount on the package will be the total amount your puppy should eat each day,” Dr. Bern advises. “Split that total amount into the number of feedings you are giving your dog.” For example, if you should give your puppy one cup of food and you have two feedings a day, you should measure out one half cup of food for each feeding.

4 to 8 Months
Your puppy is growing. In addition to more food, he should be able to go longer without eating. It’s also time to make sure that your puppy learns good mealtime manners. Never feed your dog from the table. “If your puppy begs for food, do not feel bad removing him from the dining area during mealtimes,” assures Dr. Koehl. It’s also important to teach your puppy how to eat. “Make sure that he sits and stays before you put his bowl down,” advises Dr. Bern. “Food motivation makes training easier.”

8 Months to 1 Year
During the final months of puppyhood, your dog should be down to an adult feeding schedule — one to two times a day. By the time your dog is a year old, she is ready for adult food. To make the change, start by adding a small amount of adult food to your puppy’s meal. Add more adult food every day as you cut the amount of puppy food until you are feeding only adult chow. Again, follow package instructions to determine how much to feed your pup.

When to Worry
Your puppy should be bright eyed, active and eager to eat. If your pet ever appears listless or refuses to eat, seek a veterinarian immediately, as a feeding adjustment may be necessary.

Have a new pup to name? Check out 51 Unique Dog Names! 

Shellie Braeuner, is an award-winning children’s author. She earned an M.Ed from Vanderbilt in Human Developmental Counseling and has worked as a nanny for more than 25 years

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Puppy Feeding Fundamentals: Timeline for Puppy Feeding

Walk down the dog food aisle of any large pet-supply store, or peruse the shelves at a boutique pet-food shop, and you can quickly become overwhelmed. This is especially true for puppy owners, and probably even more so for first-time puppy owners. When did it get so complicated? Back in the day, dog food options were far more limited, and even responsible dog owners didn’t worry too much about what went into their dog’s dish.

The process may now be somewhat more involved, but that’s a good thing. Higher quality ingredients with better sourcing and specialized diet formulas lead to overall better health for our puppies. And every bit as important as what to feed your puppy is having an understanding of his special nutritional needs.

All puppies are different, so if you have any concerns or questions about your puppy’s food, feeding schedule, or nutritional health, always consult your breeder or veterinarian—that’s what they’re there for.

Many puppy owners wonder, “How long should I feed puppy food?” Here is a general timeline for what your puppy needs at each stage of his first year of life.

Feeding Your Puppy: A First-Year Timeline

  • 6–12 weeks: Growing pups should be fed puppy food, a diet specially formulated to meet the nutritional needs for normal development. Feeding adult food will rob your puppy of important nutrients. Four feedings a day are usually adequate to meet nutritional demands. Large breeds should be fed unmoistened dry food by 9 or 10 weeks; small dogs by 12 or 13 weeks.
  • 3–6 months: Sometime during this period, decrease feedings from four to three a day. A pup should be losing her potbelly and pudginess by 12 weeks. If she is still roly-poly at this age, continue to feed puppy-size portions until body type matures.
  • 6–12 months: Begin feeding twice daily. Spaying or neutering lowers energy requirements slightly; after the procedure, switch from nutrient-rich puppy food to adult maintenance food. Small breeds can make the switch at 7 to 9 months; bigger breeds at 12, 13, even 14 months. Err on the side of caution: Better to be on puppy food a little too long than not long enough.
  • After age 1: Most owners feed adult dogs two half-portions a day.

How much food should I give my puppy?

There’s a saying in canine feeding: Watch the dog, not the dish. Body condition, not the amount eaten or left in the bowl, should determine portion sizes. Portion sizes depend on individual metabolism and body type, and nutritional requirements vary from dog to dog. If your puppy occasionally skips a meal or picks at food, don’t worry. It could mean she is ready to eliminate a feeding or that you have given her too much, in which case simply reduce the quantity served.

Also, if you are doing treat-based training with your pup, adjust the amount you feed at mealtime accordingly. Whenever training with treats, keep the treat as small as possible.

How often should I feed my puppy?

Like human babies, puppies start out needing many small meals a day, of a food formulated for their special nutritional requirements. Most, but not all, dogs finish meals quickly. To discourage picky habits, feed at regular times in regular amounts and don’t leave food down for more than 10 to 20 minutes.

Your breeder will be an excellent source of guidance for both of these questions, as will your vet.

Is it worth it to buy expensive puppy food?

Premium dog food has higher nutritional density, so you can feed your dog less to achieve the same results. Also, premium foods have stable ingredient profiles; the composition of bargain brands can vary from batch to batch.

The major dog-food companies invest heavily in product development and research, constantly upgrading formulas to keep up with their competitors. This means that feeding premium food puts you on the cutting edge of canine nutrition.

Dry food, wet food, or both?

Many pet-food companies have worked with canine-nutrition scientists to develop special formulas for both large- and small-breed puppies.

  • Canned food is the most expensive to feed, and dogs often find it most palatable. Be careful of “all-meat” claims, though. Your dog should have a complete, balanced diet to fulfill nutritional requirements. Meat alone may not do it.
  • Semi-moist food is available in one-serving packets. It is usually made to look like hamburger.
  • Kibble is the most economical, and the major makers offer a complete and balanced diet for dogs of all sizes and ages. Dry food can be fed exactly as it comes from the bag.

Some dog owners say there is an oral-hygiene advantage in hard kibble because the friction produced helps to keep the gums and teeth healthy. Kibble can be moistened, either with water or canned food. Although unnecessary, that addition may make food tastier.

Food for Big Puppies & Little Puppies

There are differences between the nutritional needs of small-breed and large-breed dogs, and that is especially true for puppies. Adult dogs who weigh less than 20 pounds are considered small-breed dogs. These puppies grow quickly and may reach adulthood by 9 months. Large-breed puppies (20 pounds and up), grow more slowly—it takes anywhere from 15 to 24 months to reach full size and maturity.

  • Best food for small-breed dogs
  • Best food for large-breed dogs 

Chart Your Puppy’s Weight and Growth

  • There are growth-and-weight charts available in print and online. Weigh the puppy weekly and record his progress, comparing him to breed-appropriate weight charts. Adjust his food intake to achieve an average rate of growth.
  • Weighing a dog, even a squirming puppy, is easy. Just weigh yourself, then weigh yourself holding the puppy. Subtract the difference—that’s the puppy’s weight. Voila!
  • Don’t worry about an ounce or two either way; no two dogs, even within breeds, are built exactly alike.
  • A young dog carrying too much weight has an increased risk of orthopedic problems, due to stress on immature joints. Obesity can also lead to diabetes, diseases of the heart and other organs, and general lethargy.

My puppy is begging! Should I feed him people food or table scraps?

One little French fry will invariably lead to another, and another. Before long, an obese dog will be crowding you off the love seat. Also, a steady diet of table scraps can create a nutritional imbalance, and certain ingredients and spices in your favorite dishes can cause upset stomach in dogs.

The pleading gaze of a begging dog can be irresistible. This is no accident. During his long partnership with man, the dog has perfected cunning methods of exploiting the human habit of associating food with affection. In prehistoric times semi-domesticated canines first cultivated human beings as a food provider. As the two species grew closer, dogs modified begging behaviors to maximize results: The more pathetic a dog seemed, the more scraps were tossed his way. Dogs have since refined this approach into a low-risk, high-reward hunting technique.

But don’t be fooled: Begging is not an emotional crisis or a test of your love. It’s what scientists might call an evolutionary survival strategy, or what the rest of us might call a scam. Allowing your dog to guilt you into overfeeding him, or serving him a steady diet of table scraps in a misguided show of affection, can have harmful or even fatal results.

Puppy Feeding Tidbits

  • Feeding your pup the moment you get home may encourage puppy separation anxiety. Play or grooming is a more positive way to say hello.
  • When medically necessary, you can purchase canned or dry prescription diets from veterinarians to feed dogs with kidney disease, heart disease, diabetes, and other serious conditions. These foods should never be fed without a prescription.
  • Some vitamin or mineral supplements, when utilized incorrectly (such as extra calcium given to a large-breed dog on a good diet), will do more harm than good.
  • Before making a major change in your dog’s diet, consult with your veterinarian and, when possible, the breeder. Once the formula is chosen, stick with it. Sudden changes in food may cause digestion problems.
  • Small portions of carrot or apple chunks are healthful low-calorie snacks most dogs love.
  • Fresh water should be available at all times. During the summer months, consider setting up multiple indoor/outdoor water stations. To avoid a buildup of bacteria, wash the water bowl daily.

How to Switch from Puppy Food to Adult Food

When switching from puppy food to adult food, you should make the switch gradually over a period of a few days. A sudden change in your dog’s diet may cause stomach upset. Talk to your veterinarian about the best food for your puppy.

Puppy Feeding Advice

Make sure everyone gets with the program

Your entire household must be committed to your dog’s feeding regimen. If there’s a soft touch for a handout in your family, your dog will find it and exploit it, thus undoing the good you are trying to do. Keeping a dog trim takes a conscious effort from everyone on your team.

Give a dog a bone? Careful!

Our best advice here is caution. Poultry and pork bones, or cooked bones of any kind, are strictly forbidden. They splinter into shards that can cause choking and serious damage to the dog’s mouth, throat, or intestines. Any bone, in fact, once chewed into small pieces, can block the intestines and lead to a nasty bout of constipation, can cause lacerations of the mouth and internal organs, or can lodge in the throat with fatal results. It is important to note that bones have little if any nutritional value.

There are other ways to satisfy a dog’s craving to chew. Commercially available chew toys and simulated bones are made for dogs of all sizes.

As the famous food writer M.F.K. Fisher wrote, “First we eat. Then we do everything else.” This is true for our pups, too.

Need help with your adorable new puppy? Training your dog can be challenging without expert help. That’s why we’re here to help you virtually, through AKC GoodDog! Helpline. This live telephone service connects you with a professional trainer who will offer unlimited, individualized advice on everything from house-training to behavioral issues.

Puppy Feeding Guidelines | Schedule & Tips

Hello, I am rescuing my first puppy next Monday. She’ll be 11.5 weeks when we get her, and I’ve never had a dog that young. The people fostering her are feeding her litter 3/4 cup twice a day.

She’s an Australian shepherd/great pyrenees/golden retriever mix. I keep reading mixed things about feeding them twice or three times a day. Which do you recommend?

And if it is three times a day, given that she’s almost three months old, how much would you feed her each time? I have an appointment with a vet on that Friday, but wanted to ask you what you thought, hoping to get an answer before I pick her up.

Thanks so much in advance! I’m really excited to take on this challenge, But it’s also a little nerve-wrecking to not know how much to feed her exactly?
-Michele Solano

Read Dr. Kristy Conn’s Advice:

Congratulations on your newest four-legged addition to your family. I understand the excitement and trepidation that comes with bringing home a furry ball of joy. You want to do right by her and that includes making sure she is getting the correct amount of nutrition. This is a popular time of year for bringing home puppies so I’d like to take the opportunity to review basic puppy feeding guidelines for the first year of life while covering your question which may also answer any future questions you or other readers may have.

First 6 to 8 Weeks

During the first six to eight weeks of life the puppy should stay with the mother and be allowed to nurse ad-lib. It is especially important they nurse from the mother. The mother’s milk provides the best nutrition and provides antibodies to help protect your puppy from disease. Sometimes it is not possible to keep a puppy with the mother for the first eight weeks such as when the mother develops eclampsia or mastitis. In these situations milk replacers and bottles especially designed for puppies can be found at any major pet store.

Weaning Your Puppy to Solid Food

Weaning your puppy to solid food should not be an overnight endeavor but should ideally take place over the course of two to three weeks. First select the brand of puppy food you intend to feed. Puppies have high caloric and nutritional needs and so the food selected should be a high quality brand of puppy food. Talk to your veterinarian for specific recommendations but generally the best puppy foods will be a good source of protein, calcium and calories.

Starting around four to six weeks of age begin introducing your puppy to puppy food by making a gruel by blending the puppy food with milk replacer. Offer the gruel three to four times a day gradually reducing the amount of milk replaced used to make the gruel. This way your puppy gradually learns to adapt to solid food and gastric upset is minimized. By around eight weeks of age your puppy should be eating solid food.

How Often to Feed Your Pup

Puppies should be fed three to four times a day therefore if you are currently feeding ¾ a cup of puppy food twice a day you should consider spacing it out by feeding ½ cup three times a day.

Smaller meals are easier to digest for the puppy and energy levels don’t peak and fall so much with frequent meals. At around six months you may start feeding twice a day for convenience but because your dog is a mixed large breed dog I would recommend sticking with a 3-4 times a day feeding schedule if possible to minimize the risk of gastric dilatation volvulus.

Purina Pro Plan Large Breed Dry Puppy Food, Chicken and Rice Formula – 34 lb. Bag

  • One (1) 34 lb. Bag – Purina Pro Plan Large Breed Dry Puppy Food, Chicken and Rice Formula
  • Formulated to support an appropriate growth rate for large breed puppies
  • Glucosamine supports developing joints and cartilage

Move on From Puppy Food

Puppy food is very high in calories and nutritional supplements so you want to switch to adult food once your puppy begins to approach maturity. There is no set age when the switch should be made because it will vary with the breed and individual dog.

In general, the smaller the dog the faster they reach maturity. Small breeds up to 30 pounds mature around ten to twelve months of age although some toy breeds reach maturity even sooner. Medium breed dogs up to 80 pounds will reach maturity between twelve to sixteen months and I believe your puppy may fall into this category. It really depends how much Great Pyrenees she has in her. Large breed dogs weighing more than 80 pounds can take up to two years to reach maturity.

When making the switch to adult food, do it slowly over the course of one to two weeks by gradually mixing in increasing amounts of the adult food with decreasing amounts of her puppy food to minimize gastric upset.

Foods to Avoid

Try to avoid foods that list corn or meat by-products as the first ingredient because meat should be the first ingredient.

Avoid feeding your dog puppy food longer than you have to. Feeding puppy food too long can result in obesity and orthopedic problems. You will know when it is time to make the switch when you notice your dog eating less of the puppy food or if she starts to put on too much weight.

Don’t Let Your Dog Get Chubby

It is important to be able to judge your dog’s body condition score in order to determine how much food you should give.The recommendations on the labels are guidelines only and will not apply to every dog. You may need to feed a little more or less depending on your dog’s condition score.

Ideally you should be able to feel but not see the ribs and by looking straight down at your dog while she is standing there should be a recognizable waist. Ask your veterinarian if your dog is at a healthy weight during your next visit and ask for examples of body condition scores.

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How To Take Care of a 6 Week Old Puppy

At 6 weeks old, a puppy is still too young to be taken from its mother. Ideally, a puppy should be taken from its mother after 8 weeks. However, in rare circumstances where a puppy is weaned at 6 weeks, these tips below will help you care for a 6-week-old puppy.

Page Contents

  • 1 How much should a 6 week old puppy eat?
  • 2 Can 6 week old puppies drink milk?
  • 3 6 week old puppy feeding schedule
  • 4 6 week old puppy training
  • 5 What to do with 6 week old puppy crying at night
  • 6 How to handle a 6 week old puppy with fleas
  • 7 What to do if your 6 week old puppy sleeps a lot
  • 8 Why does my 6 week old puppy have diarrhea?
  • 9 Conclusion

How much should a 6 week old puppy eat?

Puppies cannot consume large quantities of food like larger dogs. So be sure to feed the puppy small portions of food. You should also stay close when feeding the pup to prevent overeating.

Puppies can eat raw food or pup food. Milk or similar supplements are not needed at this time. When the pup is up to 8 weeks old, the food intake can increase. However, you still should not overfeed the pup.

Good puppy foods must contain protein or meat as the main ingredient. You can also add foods with fruit, vegetables, minerals, and added vitamins.

It is important to note that puppy breeds differ, so this is why Pitbull puppies need different types of food from Chihuahuas. If you aren’t sure about what to feed the puppy, contact a vet to get the best information about your puppy’s nutrition.

Can 6 week old puppies drink milk?

Milk is great for humans as it provides energy. However, it is unsafe to feed a dog milk from a cow. This is because cow milk causes diarrhea for dogs. If you must give the puppy milk, then opt for goat milk. You can also hand feed your puppy soft foods that are pup friendly.

While you give the puppy goat milk, remember that the puppy needs water for hydration. Give him water often to keep him healthy and hydrated. The water can also come in handy when the pup has diarrhea. Keep a clean bowl of water for the puppy.

6 week old puppy feeding schedule

Normally, a puppy should be fed at least four times a day. Smaller meals are recommended because they are a lot easier to digest. It also gives the puppy perfect energy levels for the day. When your pup is about six months old, you can reduce feeding to twice a day. However, if the dog is a large mixed breed, you can stick to the original feeding pattern to reduce the risk of illness.

Remember to move on from feeding the dog puppy food as he grows. Puppy food has high calories, so you need to make the switch before the puppy becomes an adult dog. Vets do not recommend any set age to switch because breeds and individuality differ in dogs.

Generally, when a dog is smaller, he reaches maturity faster. Smaller breeds that weigh up to 30 pounds may mature at 10 to 12 months. Other smaller breeds mature waster too. Dogs weighing 80 pounds mature at 12 to 16 months while larger dogs take up to two years.

As you switch to adult dog food. Take up to a week or more to complete the training. Start by mixing small to large amounts of adult dog food with the puppy food. Remember to reduce the quantity to prevent a gastric upset.

6 week old puppy training

You must train your puppy on how to behave, toilet habits and more. Your pup also learns by playing with you. However, you should try to do this without touching the pup because the puppy may not like this. The touching can also make the puppy aggressive later in his life.

While playing, you can begin to teach your dog some commands such as sitting and standing. To teach the puppy, repeat the words severally until he begins to respond. Ensure that you have some treats nearby to appreciate the pup’s hard work. This training is important while the pup is young as it helps the dog to grow up well behaved.

You should train your dog not to bite humans. Puppies often bite as a form of play but as he grows, it can become a habit. Teach the puppy not to bite anyone using different tricks. Be attentive towards the pup so you can tell if he bites people around.

When it comes to toilet training, it can be stressful to train the puppy. But it is necessary to prevent bad toilet habits when the puppy is grown. Start the training with a newspaper.

Start by laying the newspaper in the puppy’s house and teaching him that he should use that newspaper whenever they need to answer nature’s call. The training can be hectic and requires lots of patience.

It is better to schedule a time for the puppy to ease himself. A two-hour interval may be ideal. After giving the puppy water, you may also take him out to pee.

Also, you can reduce water intake for the pup before bedtime to prevent messes. Also, don’t forget to take the pup out when he wakes up so he can ease himself.

Using the same spot for the training is important. It helps the pup to recognize the specific spot when he wants to pee.

Praising your pup is also important. it makes it fun for the pup and doesn’t seem like a form of punishment. Tie a small bell on the doorknob to train the puppy on how to send a message to you that he has to go.

Ringing the bell before taking your pup out will teach the puppy to do the same. It may take a while to get used to, but he will learn to be patient.

At 6 weeks old, a pup isn’t aware of social skills and you need to train him on how to interact with people and other animals. The puppy has to learn proper interaction with humans being and animals. A park is a suitable spot for this exercise. If you have any friends with experience in dog training, you can also invite them over to help the pup get used to other people.

Your puppy should also have adequate training on how to be home alone. If this training isn’t done, the dog may become hyper when no one is home and go on a rampage. The pup can begin to chew on items in the house and create a mess.

To train the pup in this aspect, place the crate in one spot with water, a food bowl and some newspapers. Allow the pup to stay there alone for a short while. This training can be started in one week. It may take some time and the pup may be aggressive at the start but will calm down later on. If the pup’s behavior improves, be sure to give him a treat.

What to do with 6 week old puppy crying at night

Puppies cry when they need to alert their owners of a problem. During the first few days with you, a puppy may cry instinctively to tell you that he is afraid, in pain, hungry or just needs to pee. Giving the puppy attention will help reassure him that he is not alone. it could stop the crying at night.

How to handle a 6 week old puppy with fleas

If your pup has fleas, you need to groom him using a flea comb. You can also pick the fleas off using a tweezer. After doing this, wash the pup’s bedding, clean the surrounding areas and treat the other pets in the house for fleas.

What to do if your 6 week old puppy sleeps a lot

Puppies sleep a lot so you should not worry when your pup sleeps a lot. However, you need to check the sleeping schedule of the pup to ensure that he gets enough sleep.

Your pup should get at least 18 hours of sleep daily like a newborn child. So, ensure that the pup has a comfortable spot to sleep in.

Sleeping is crucial as it helps develop the immune system of the pup. It also helps your pup to rest well and have more energy to play.

Why does my 6 week old puppy have diarrhea?

Diarrhea in puppies can be a sign of parasites, worms or even a change in diet. You need to monitor your pup closely. What seems like a stomach bug may be fatal for pups who have underdeveloped immune systems. Take the pup to the vet if you notice diarrhea.


Having a six week old puppy under your care is like caring for a newborn human. You need to be very patient with your pet. You also need to ensure that you give the pup attention as you teach him different life skills. Your friends and family can help you train the pup as well. To help the pup socialize better, you can throw parties for puppies so the pup can blend in with other pets in the house.

Taking care of your 6 week old pup is no easy task, but following these simple steps, you can train a healthy adult dog.


Everything You Need To Know| Petfinder


There’s a lot to plan for a puppy’s arrival. At the top of the list is how much to feed a puppy. Your puppy’s portions depend on his breed, weight, and age. Plan ahead and create a puppy feeding schedule that is consistent, nutritionally balanced and meets his energy requirements.

Why feeding puppies puppy food is important

Puppies need a lot of calories, extra protein, and more fat to help sustain growth, so puppy food is balanced accordingly. Typically, puppy food also includes some of the nutrients found in mother’s milk, like the Omega Fatty Acid DHA.


To ensure you’re selecting a puppy food, make sure it is labeled specifically for puppies or says “for all life stages” somewhere on the package.



Puppy feeding chart

How much to feed a puppy and how often to feed a puppy depends first and foremost on his age. The easiest way to remember how much to feed a puppy is to create a puppy feeding chart that matches your puppy’s breed and weight at maturity.


Very young puppies need to eat a high-quality puppy food diet approximately 3 to 4 times per day. The frequency of feeding puppies goes down to 3 times per day at around 3 to 6 months of age, and 2 times per day at around 6 to 12 months.


After about a year, most puppies can transition to a nutritionally balanced adult dog food diet 2 times per day.


How much to feed a puppy
Age Portions Frequency
8 – 12 Weeks Small Portions 3-4x/day
4 – 5 Months Puppy Food 3x/day
6 – 8 Months Puppy Food 2x/day
9 – 11 Months Adult Food 2x/day
1 – 2 Year* Adult Food 2x/day
2 Year +* Adult Food 2x/day
Check the back of your puppy’s food packaging to get accurate portion sizes for his weight.

*Toy and smaller breeds may be able to transition to adult food a little earlier (some as early as 7 to 9 months), while some giant breeds don’t reach adulthood until around 18-24 months. Ask your veterinarian for specific guidance here, and if you have any doubts as to when your puppy has officially become a full-grown dog, keep him on puppy food a little longer. When it comes to feeding puppies, it’s better to give a few extra nutrients than not enough.



What to feed puppies in the first year

As a new pet parent, you’ll find no shortage of dog food choices for feeding puppies. Puppies grow at a rapid pace, and a few food transitions are to be expected.


Starting Solids: 8 weeks old

  1. Typically, solids introduced at 8 weeks of age.
  2. Transition the pup slowly to solids, usually over 5 – 7 weeks.
  3. At first, wet the kibble with water.
  4. Allow the kibble to soak for a few minutes so that’s it’s soft.
  5. Continue to wet the kibble with water over several weeks.
  6. Each week use 1 tsp less water to soften the food.
  7. By week 3 – 4, your puppy’s meals should be mostly crunchy kibble.
  8. At week 7, he should be fully transitioned onto the dry dog food.


Regular Feeding: 6 – 12 months old

  1. At 6 to 12 months establish regular eating times.
  2. Start serving 2 feedings per day.
  3. Create your own puppy feeding schedule routine.
  4. The first step on the schedule is to leave the bowl of food on the floor for a set amount of time.
  5. For beginners, start with 5 to 15 minutes, depending on how fast your dog eats.
  6. Be consistent with the schedule and always use the same place to feed your dog, same time, and same time period.
  7. Your dog will learn how this schedule works for the next 2 weeks.
  8. Once your puppy is familiar with regular meal times you’ll find that they’re followed by regular potty times.
  9. Bonus! More solid foods make picking up after your pup a lot easier.


Switching to Adult Dog Food: 1+ years

  1. Adult dog food is introduced from a year old.
  2. Transition your puppy slowly by mixing the new food into his puppy portions.
  3. Meals should be a mix of 75% puppy food to 25% adult food.
  4. Continue to serve mixed portions for about 2 – 3 days.
  5. Gradually increase the adult food and decrease the puppy food by 10%.
  6. By day 5 or 6, your puppy should be fully transitioned, eating 100% adult food.
  7. Patience is key and a slow transition will help your puppy’s stomach adjust.
  8. The whole process should take about a week.



Which dog food diet is healthier: Wet vs Dry vs Raw

Selecting a puppy food can be daunting. Most major dog food companies work with pet food nutritionists and adhere to strict guidelines for creating complete and balanced nutrition.  The most important thing to remember when choosing a dog food diet is that it’s appropriate for your pup’s life stage.


While there are many pros and cons of what to feed a puppy, the best food for your pup is the one that he enjoys eating, fits in with your budget and your family’s needs, and has your veterinarian’s seal of approval.


Wet food* Dry food* Raw food
Available in cans or tubs Available as kibble
High moisture content Convenient access travels well
Dog feels full quicker easy to store
Good for breeds prone to weight gain more economical than wet food
Pup stays hydrated stays fresh longer
Palatable and easier to chew Crunchy morsels clean teeth
Messier to eat than dry food Must be stored in a dry area to avoid bugs Can contain harmful bacteria
Bit more expensive Should be properly sealed Requires additional nutrients in accurate proportions
Refrigerate within 2 hours Unbalanced meals can cause bowel and gastrointestinal distress
Not advised for puppies

* Always follow veterinarian recommendations and/or instructions on the bag.


4 Tips to maintain a puppy feeding schedule

You’re well on your way to feeding your pup a perfectly healthy diet. Just don’t overdo it on treats. Keep in mind that treats should take up no more than 10% of your puppy’s total food quota for the day.


Finally, pay attention to your pup’s cues and always keep the following in mind:


  • Stick to dog food and skip the table scraps; some human foods can make your dog sick.
  • Keep fresh water out along with any food, and clean both food and water bowls regularly.
  • Don’t start a medical diet or supplements without a prescription or recommendation.
  • Always consult a veterinarian with any questions you may have.



Learn more about feeding a dog

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Setting up a Puppy Feeding Schedule

The Spruce / Madelyn Goodnight

In This Article

  • Food Amount

  • Up to 3 Months

  • 3 to 6 Months

  • 6 to 12 Months

  • Frequency

  • Time Schedule

Your puppy needs quality food to grow and develop into a healthy dog. The feeding schedule, how much, how many meals to provide and the type of food depends on the breed of puppy, size, and age.

Amount to Feed

Young puppies are growing rapidly and need more food per pound than older puppies. At the age of 3 months, your puppy will begin to need a little less food. You will need to be careful not to overfeed your dog. A puppy should be losing the round belly at this point. If you still have a roly-poly puppy, you should keep your dog on lower portions until the pot belly is gone.

At age 6 to 12 months you may spay or neuter your dog, which will result in slightly lower needs for calories per day. This is also the age where you may switch from high-calorie puppy food to adult maintenance food, although that will depend on the breed. Smaller breeds switch at age 7 to 9 months while larger breeds stay on puppy food until 12 to 14 months.

The amount you feed depends on your puppy’s age and the type of food you offer. Directions on the food package are only a starting guideline, so be ready to adjust the amount up or down if your baby is still hungry, or leaves food behind.

Weaning to 3 Months

Weight (Pounds) Amount per Day (Cups)
1 to 5 1/3 to 1-1/2
6 to 10 1-1/2 to 2-1/2
11 to 22 2-1/3 to 4

3 to 6 Months

Weight (Pounds) Amount per Day (Cups)
1 to 5 1/3 to 1
6 to 10 1-1/4 to 1-1/2
11 to 15 1-3/4 to 2-1/3
16 to 25 2-1/3 to 3-1/2
26 to 33 3-2/3 to 4-1/3

6 to 12 Months

Weight (Pounds) Amount per Day (Cups)
5 to 10 1/2 to 1
11 to 15 1 to 1-1/3
16 to 25 1-1/2 to 2-1/4
26 to 35 2-1/3 to 2-2/3
36 to 45 2-2/3 to 3-1/3
46 to 55 3-1/3 to 3-3/4
56 to 65 3-3/4 to 4-1/2

These are estimates. Feeding amount can vary based on breed, size, and age.

How Often to Feed

You will often see daily amounts on the charts provided. You will need to divide these into the multiple meals suggested for puppies of various ages.

Most pups should be fed at least three times a day until six months of age. Tiny puppies like Yorkies and Chihuahuas are prone to hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) if they don’t eat often enough, so four meals daily may work best.

Feed three or four separate meals to young puppies during the first few months at home. Then gradually wean them to one or two meals daily by the time they are 6 months old.

However, there are some puppies that either won’t or aren’t able to eat enough when fed once or twice a day, and their growth may suffer as a result. Ask your veterinarian about feeding smaller servings several times a day.

Making Your Puppy Feeding Time Schedule

It’s tempting to simply fill up the bowl with dry food and let puppies snack all day. While convenient for you, that won’t allow you to monitor the baby’s intake, which also helps predict output—when your dog needs a potty break. ​Use meal schedules as part of your house training efforts.

Scheduled meals also alert you to check with the vet if your puppy that normally eats enthusiastically one day refuses a meal. Free feeding from a bowl that is always kept full can be dangerous for that reason.

Routine is important, so be consistent. The best way to do that is base the feeding times on your schedule. Dogs consider meals a social affair, so timing your own meals with the puppies can work well.

A first meal might coincide with your own breakfast, the second when the family comes home from school or work in the afternoon, and coordinate the third with your evening meal. If you’re not able to be there to feed at prescribed times, you can provide one of the puppy’s meals in a treat-toy, and leave it with her in her crate or play area while you’re gone.

Feeding puppy meals in the crate or carrier also associate “good things” with the crate. Scheduled meals not only are healthy for the puppy, they aid in house training and crate training, and can be a bonding experience with your puppy.

Preparing Homemade Puppy Food

Watch Now: All You Need to Know about Puppies

Puppy care from 1 to 5 months – how to properly feed a puppy – ProPlan

Puppy care up to five months

August 03, 2022

Proper nutrition and good care are the foundations of a dog’s health, longevity and happy life. Therefore, even before buying a puppy, you will need to think carefully about all related issues.

Puppies grow very fast, and for their harmonious development, both physical and mental, the first months of life are very important.

Peculiarities of mental and physical development of puppies by months

Puppy at 1 month old

In one month, or four and a half weeks, puppies still live with their mother, brothers and sisters. Not so long ago they began to hear and see, and during this period they have an active phase of exploring the surrounding space, new sounds, smells, surrounding people and animals. Monthly puppies are still too small to make meaningful actions, as long as they are all based on instincts and communication with their mother. As a rule, breeders do not sell puppies at the age of one month, giving them the opportunity to get stronger, to get the first lessons in socialization. Human interaction during this period is very important for puppies to develop as companion dogs.

From one month to two, puppies have an active phase of memorization or, in other words, an identification phase. The puppy begins to meaningfully recognize parents, form social relationships with littermates and people.

Roar and take away a toy from a brother or sister, bite mother on the cheek to share food, run away from a person or run up to him. During this period, each puppy has a lot of similar questions, the answers to which he receives by performing an action and receiving a reaction. The sister gave the toy away, which means it is weaker, next time you can take the toy away again. Mom growled and shook her scruff, so don’t bite her on the cheek. The person came and pleasantly stroked or screamed loudly – depending on the action, the puppy will build its further reactions to repetitive stimuli.

Puppy at 2-3 months old

Two- and three-month-old puppies are very affectionate, inquisitive and sociable. They are active and constantly exploring something. For example, when meeting strangers, they run up to them completely fearlessly, sniff, caress, jump, sometimes bark. Therefore, during this period, they can easily develop positive skills associated with any activity. At this time, the puppy can easily be taught to follow the commands “Place!”, “Come!”, “Walk!”.

Puppy at 3-4 months

Skills for commands “Sit!”, “Lie down!”, “No!” the puppy will work out much easier at the age of 3.5-4 months. This is due to the fact that such commands are based on inhibitory reactions that are not yet developed in the puppy at an earlier age.

Puppy at 4-5 months

At the age of 4-5 months, the puppy needs regular, gradually increasing in time and difficulty walks, which are important both for his physical development and for the accumulation of life experience. During this period, the puppy is developing the characteristics of his nervous system, his character can noticeably change. When meeting with strangers, the puppy may no longer run up to them to start a game, but only observe from the side, and at the first manifestation of even unsharply pronounced threatening actions by outsiders, they get scared and run away. Therefore, this time is also called the period of fears.

At this time, the owner is required to be very careful, affectionate handling of the puppy, careful observation of what may frighten him. You need to try to predict such a moment in order to distract the puppy from the negative reaction in time with a treat or a game.

At what age is it better to take a puppy?

If you are offered to take a puppy at the age of 1 month, it is better not to do this, allowing the baby to grow up in his own family for another month.

No matter at what age you took a puppy, at two months, at three or four, try to establish the right relationship with him from the first day, which is commonly called good contact. This will allow him to develop affection for you, obedience, devotion, and subsequently love. To do this, you need:

  • always treat your pet calmly,
  • feed him, walk him, comb him in time – that is, take care of him,
  • regularly train with him, combining games and initial training.

Try not to let any troubles in life affect your communication with the puppy. Dogs very subtly feel the mood of their owner and react accordingly.

Problems that arise as the puppy grows

Problems that can arise during the growth period of puppies of any breed are mostly related to improper feeding. The amount of feed should be constantly measured in relatively small portions to avoid overeating. Obesity in dogs puts a lot of stress on the heart and circulation. It happens that even weak ligaments and joints are exposed to unnecessary excessive stress in puppies and young dogs. The consequence of this can be diseases associated with the paws and joints. With proper nutrition, the puppy should actively play, run, and explore the territory several times a day. Too tiring walks for several hours in the first year of life should be avoided. If your dog is unwell, contact the dog breeder or veterinarian immediately.

Puppy Care Highlights 2 to 5 Months

In order to lay a solid foundation for your dog’s health from childhood, your puppy will need to be vaccinated and dewormed at specific times.

Deworming and vaccinations

The dog’s breeder performs the first deworming procedures. Together with basic housing and feeding instructions, he will tell you about the exact schedule for further deworming and vaccination procedures. Usually the owner of the puppy gives him an anthelmintic drug before the next vaccination, ten days before it.

1 month

As mentioned above, at the age of one month, the puppy is still too small to separate him from his family. Good breeders do not give away their wards at such a young age, but leave them in the company of their mother, at least for another half a month or a month. During this time, the puppy is actively adapting to the outside world.

If, nevertheless, the circumstances are such that you have a one-month-old puppy, then you will need to give him the first vaccination when he is 6 weeks old. If you are unsure about the best time to start vaccinating, contact your breeder or veterinarian.

2 months

If you pick up your puppy from a breeder at 2-2.5 months of age, the breeder usually does the first vaccination. This happens when the puppies are 8-9 weeks old, so he comes to you already vaccinated. The second vaccination should be done by the owner when the puppy is 12 weeks old. It must be remembered that until the second vaccination is given to the puppy, he must be quarantined. For a detailed explanation of the timing of vaccinations, you can contact the puppy’s breeder.

3 months

If for some reason the puppy did not receive its first vaccination either at 6 weeks of age or at 8-9 weeks of age, the third variant of the vaccination schedule should be used. This means that the puppy should be vaccinated for the first time at 12 weeks of age and revaccinated between 14 and 16 weeks of age. In order not to get confused in the timing and make the necessary vaccinations on time, it is recommended to have a calendar where the puppy’s age in weeks and the necessary weeks for vaccination will be marked. Or you can seek the advice of a veterinarian.

A later vaccination date does not change the fact that the puppy will have to be quarantined until he has had his second vaccination. This means that he will not yet be able to communicate with his relatives on the street.

4 months old

If your puppy has been vaccinated according to the standard vaccination schedule, this means that at 4 months old he is already fully vaccinated, the quarantine is lifted, and you can enjoy walking together, getting to know other dogs and doing initial training.

5 months

At the age of 5 months, the puppy should be active, already fully accustomed to the house, know his nickname, a few basic commands, understand what is possible and what is not.

During this period, he still continues to change his teeth from milk to permanent, which begins at about three months and lasts up to seven months. During this period, you need to monitor the puppy’s oral cavity, monitoring whether milk teeth fall out. This is important both for the health of the dog and for the formation of the correct bite.

Care for the health and appearance of the puppy

Training for walks

Regardless of the time of year, it is necessary to accustom the puppy to walks. Immediately after sleep and after each feeding, the puppy must be taken outside for 5-10 minutes to accustom him to the toilet. The more often you take your puppy outside, the faster he will understand what is wanted from him, and the faster he will get used to going to the toilet outside the house.

Longer walks, for the sake of play and active movement, are recommended between feedings. It is worth slightly increasing the time spent outdoors from 15 minutes to two hours a day, depending on the weather and season. Of course, it is important to consider the breed and age of the puppy. At first, a two-three-month-old puppy can be carried outside in your arms. At the same time, if the puppy has not yet completed the entire course of vaccinations, all contact with other dogs should be excluded.

During the walk, the puppy must be in motion, do not let him sit or lie on the cold ground. At two months, it is already possible to teach a puppy to a leash. The puppy gets used to the soft light collar quickly. At first, you need to lead him on a leash so that the puppy feels that you are leading him. Follow him (the leash should be long enough) and carefully, without jerking, take him away from unwanted places. It is necessary to ensure that the puppy does not eat unsuitable food items from the street.

By the third or fourth month during a walk, you can walk up to one and a half kilometers with a puppy of a large breed, with a puppy of a medium or small breed, this distance should be proportionally reduced. Increase the distance gradually, do not tire the puppy with too much exercise, otherwise he will lose his appetite and will not grow well.

With a five-month-old puppy, you can already run in deep snow, earth, sand, play active outdoor games, swim, let him accompany his owner on a ski or bike ride. But even here you can’t overwork the puppy, at the first sign of fatigue, you need to take a break or stop walking.

When walking with a puppy, teach him not to pay attention to noise, not to be afraid of cars, gradually moving with him from quiet streets to more noisy ones. The puppy needs both free walking and playing with peers. Socialization is especially needed for a puppy living in a private home. Keep him away from stray and unfamiliar dogs, as they can infect him with infectious diseases. During walks, you can teach your puppy to play with balloons: praise him and rejoice with him when the balloon bursts. This game will strengthen the psyche, and the puppy will not be afraid of fireworks and explosions of firecrackers.

If the puppy lives in an apartment, walks are allowed after the first vaccination. But you need to make sure that he does not meet other dogs on the street until the second vaccination. If the puppy will live in a private house, where he will be alone on his territory, you can start walking from the first day of being at home.

After a walk, especially in wet weather, wipe or wash the puppy’s paws and stomach. In winter, it is simply necessary to do this so that street reagents do not irritate or injure the skin on the paw pads.

Everyday care

Grooming time is not just a time for caring for a puppy, but also a great opportunity to communicate, establish contact, and caress a pet.


A short haired puppy needs a natural bristle brush and a fine metal comb for shedding care. An ideal care product for short-haired dogs is a massage mitt. For puppies of long-haired breeds, a slicker brush is still needed.

Puppies of all breeds will also need nail clippers, towels, shampoos. Bathe your puppy only as needed. Combing the more often, the better – this is how the puppy gets used to being touched, and this will come in handy in the future. Put the puppy down regularly, inspect the tummy, paws. In the future, he will not be afraid of human hands.

If you have a puppy of a breed that is characterized by a very long coat or a coat with a thick undercoat, you can go to a professional groomer to get the puppy used to brushing from childhood.

Dental care

Clean teeth are essential for good health. On sale now there is a large number of a wide variety of chewing sticks that act as a toothbrush, as well as special toothpastes and brushes for dogs.

During the growth period from 3 to 7 months, puppies change teeth from milk to permanent. At this time, it is important to follow the process of changing, and if necessary, contact the services of a veterinarian.

Ear Care

Bathing a puppy is only necessary if, for example, he is dirty in something. After each walk, wash and wipe the paws and stomach. When you wash your pet, be careful not to get water in his ears: moisture in the ear canal can promote fungal and other diseases. If the ears are dirty, take a damp swab and lightly remove the dirt. If the ears are dirty inside, wipe them with a cotton swab moistened with a special lotion, but not deep. Clean ears must be dry. In puppies with hanging ears, the ear canals are closed and not ventilated, therefore, for prevention, we recommend using special ear cleaners once every one to two weeks.

Nail care

Nails trimmed as needed. If the dog wears off its claws during walks, they are not trimmed. It is advisable to regularly feel the paws and fingers: if someday the dog cuts its paw, you will be able to provide first aid in a timely manner and apply a bandage.

Long claws can cause paws to turn out even when set correctly. When shearing, the claws are shortened, and the paw becomes in place, so it is very important to ensure that the claws do not grow unnecessarily. Start clipping or sharpening your puppy’s nails as early as possible, every one to two weeks. For small puppies, clippers from a manicure set are well suited. When conventional clippers are no longer suitable, you will need to use special clippers for dog claws. There are blood vessels in every claw, and if you hit them, they will bleed, so try to avoid this when trimming your nails. If trouble happens, treat with hydrogen peroxide or use a special hemostatic pencil that can be bought at a pharmacy.

Puppy Nutrition

Feeding Basics

Puppies should receive a balanced diet of excellent quality, since it is up to the age of one that the foundation is laid for their health for life. The owner of the dog is obliged to provide food that is appropriate for the size of the dog and its breed. You can’t go to extremes, believing that the dog can eat everything and feed it with leftovers from the table. But it is also impossible to humanize a pet, deciding that the pet will receive only the most delicious, and give him delicacies that are intended for people – they will cause only one harm to the dog.

Improper nutrition can lead to obesity, internal diseases or skin diseases. Only nutrition that maintains the health of the animal will be correct. Therefore, it is very important to balance the dog’s diet in terms of the content of the main food components: proteins, fats, carbohydrates.

The easiest way to do this is to use ready-made puppy food, where the content of all these elements, as well as vitamins and minerals, is taken into account, calculated and balanced.

What are the main components of food for dogs

Meat should form the basis of the dog’s diet – be part of the food or be the basis of natural nutrition. Meat is the main source of protein . But if the dog eats exclusively tenderloin, or, conversely, only defective parts (veins, skin and cartilage), this will lead to indigestion, so the meat base must be mixed from both pure meat and offal. This includes animal fat, which serves as a source of energy. Protein is also found in fish, seafood, dairy products and eggs.

To maintain healthy teeth and bones, skin and coat, the dog needs unsaturated fatty acids contained in vegetable oils. They are found both in plant products (sunflower, peanut, olive, soybean oil, sprouted wheat grains), and in animal products – in oily fish (salmon), in eggs. An excellent source of unsaturated fatty acids is fish oil.

Carbohydrates – energy providers for the body. They are found, for example, in cereals and are often added to ready-made feeds so that the dog eats up and has enough strength for active games and walks.

A complete diet must also contain vitamins and minerals necessary not only for building the skeleton, but also for other metabolic processes. The body of a growing dog undergoes continuous restructuring. As a “building material” for bones and muscles, a puppy needs protein and carbohydrates, and vitamins and minerals as energy suppliers for metabolic processes. The total feed should consist of about a third of protein, at least 5% of fat and at least half of carbohydrates.

Thus, if you decide to feed your puppy with natural food, you will need to take into account all of the above about food components in order to create a complete diet for him. In addition, it will be necessary to constantly adjust it, since the needs of the body will change with age. For example, as strange as it may seem, puppies and young dogs require more food than adult dogs of the same weight; up to five months – twice as much, and then – by about 50%. Their food should be two-thirds, and later at least half, consist of meat and other protein substances. It is easiest to follow the correct serving size by reading the information on the package of ready-made food that is appropriate for the age and needs of the dog.

By choosing ready-made puppy food, you will provide the puppy with all the necessary nutrients, you will be able to change the food according to the age of the growing pet, offer him different tastes. In order to give out the required daily allowance, you will need to read the recommendations on the package.

How to properly feed a puppy from 1 to 5 months old

It is impossible to create the perfect diet for all puppies at once. Here you will need to take into account factors such as the breed, age, size and activity level of the puppy. Feeding a puppy taken from a breeder should continue for the first time according to the recommendations of the latter.

In the third or fourth week of life, puppies, in addition to mother’s milk, begin to receive the first complementary foods. Accordingly, it is the breeder who decides what kind of food the puppies will eat in the first months – either natural food or industrial food designed for very young puppies up to 1-2 months old. So when you pick up a puppy, which can be between one and a half and five months old, his digestive system will be adapted to exactly the food he received in his first months of life. For at least one week, you will need to keep your feeding schedule and diet unchanged to avoid digestive upsets caused by restructuring and the stress of moving to a new place. It will be easier for the puppy to get used to the new conditions, and then the change of home will be painless for him.

Later, if for any reason you wish to change your young pet’s diet, you can do so at any time. In this case, the best option would be to consult a breeder or veterinarian who will give you valuable recommendations.

Puppies should not be fed a day’s worth of food at one time, their stomach is too small to properly digest the entire amount of food; the consequence of this will be an overload of the stomach. In addition, the ligaments, joints and bones will receive too much stress, which will only bring harm. In a healthy, well-fed puppy, the ribs do not protrude visually, but should be felt with the palm of your hand.

Underfeeding a puppy in the first months and up to a year will have negative consequences that are very difficult to correct. That is why it is so important to feed your puppy in a balanced way and to follow the exact feeding time. Following these two rules will help you keep his weight normal.

After eating, the puppy should be allowed to rest, as is customary with wild animals after a hearty meal. Otherwise, when playing immediately after eating, a life-threatening situation of twisting of a full stomach, which occurs in dogs of large breeds, may occur.

Number of feedings for puppies of different ages:

1st month – 5-6 times a day;

2-4 months – 4 times a day;

5th month – 3 times a day.

Divide the day from morning to evening into equal intervals and try to feed the puppy at this designated time.

What not to give to puppies:

  • Rich meat broths.
  • Chicken bones (tubular).
  • Boiled bones.
  • Smoked, salted, fatty.
  • Sweets, chocolate in any form, cakes.
  • Legumes.
  • Cabbage.

All of these foods are either poisonous to dogs or can damage the digestive tract, disrupt metabolism, or cause gas.

Only a general diet is described here, for more detailed recommendations you can always contact the breeder or veterinarian. In the future, having studied the needs of the puppy, you yourself will be able to select the appropriate food and treats for him in order to raise a healthy dog ​​out of him.

Industrial food for puppies

In terms of protein and other essential substances, ready-made feeds fully comply with scientifically sound standards. The modern way of canning preserves vitamins better than home cooking. In the manufacture of destroyed pathogens contained in the meat. Another advantage is that you can always have a supply of food in the house. For example, when traveling, ready-made food is the easiest solution to a feeding problem. Dry food contains five times less water than normal wet food, so make sure you have water in a separate bowl. 200g of dry food has approximately the same nutritional value as 850g of whole food in a can, or 400g of meat and 125g of porridge. In this case, no additional goodies are needed – they lead to obesity!

Proper feeding of a puppy is the basis for the formation of a healthy animal. He needs more high-calorie food with a high protein content. During this period, the puppy’s digestive tract is not yet fully formed, and as the transition from mother’s milk to ready-made feeds, the bacterial flora of the intestine accumulates.

When choosing a puppy’s diet, it is important to consider its age, size or breed, level of physical activity and individual health status. All these parameters are taken into account in PRO PLAN 9 super premium dry food0227® .

For large breed puppies, PRO PLAN ® OPTISTART ® for large breed puppies is suitable: it contains a balanced content of such important elements as calcium and phosphorus, which are necessary in the correct proportion for the growth and development of bones and joints, which is especially important for large dog puppies.

For puppies of medium breeds, as well as small and toy breeds, the OPTISTART ® range also includes breed-specific specialty foods.


Water, always fresh and clean, never icy, must be freely available to the puppy at all times. Although a healthy dog ​​will hardly drink on food with normal moisture, he should be able to quench his thirst in the heat, after some effort, or with a certain food. Persistent increased thirst for no recognizable cause is a sign of illness.

Possible diseases in puppies

Puppies, like all children, can get sick with something. Diseases can be infectious and non-infectious, traumatic in origin and genetically transmitted. If you can encounter the latter unexpectedly, since some diseases that are inherited may appear at a later age, then other types of diseases can be avoided. To do this, you will need to strictly follow the recommendations for caring for a puppy, feed him properly and monitor his health.

Infectious diseases

Parvovirus enteritis is a dangerous infectious disease, one of the symptoms of which is intestinal upset. The lethality of this disease in puppies reaches 90%. You can avoid it by making the puppy the necessary vaccination on time.

Canine distemper – a viral infection that is very dangerous for puppies, almost always leads to death. It can manifest itself in various forms, the most dangerous is the nervous form. Vaccination is made against the plague of carnivores.

Adenovirus and canine viral hepatitis – infectious diseases caused by adenoviruses of the first and second types. Transmitted by airborne droplets or saliva from a sick dog. Most dangerous for puppies and young dogs. A timely vaccination against these diseases will protect the young pet.

Leptospirosis – an acute infectious disease that is contagious to humans, can be fatal to a puppy. The carriers of the disease are rats. Vaccination minimizes the risk of contracting the disease.

Rabies is a fatal viral infection that is contagious to humans and fatal to dogs and humans. Rabies vaccination is mandatory and annual.


Internal parasites

For all types of internal parasites that a puppy can infect (for example, roundworms, tapeworms, heartworms, heartworms and others), special antihelminthic drugs have been developed that need to be given to the puppy periodically.

External parasites

Fleas, lice, mites, which can infect a puppy while walking or communicating with relatives, not only cause him discomfort, but can also become a source of more serious diseases, causing otitis media, various dermatological diseases. Therefore, it is mandatory to periodically treat the puppy from external parasites. You can check the processing schedule with the breeder or veterinarian.

Other diseases

A puppy can also get sick for various other reasons, for example, hypothermia, as a result of which he will develop cystitis . Or, if you take a puppy in a car with open windows, where he will look out, then he may develop conjunctivitis . If the puppy lags behind in growth and development , or he starts lameness – the problem may be related to improper nutrition.

Of course, it is impossible to protect a puppy from all diseases one hundred percent. Therefore, you, as a responsible owner, should always carefully monitor any changes in the behavior and mood of the puppy, and at the first sign of illness, seek help from a veterinarian.

If you follow the correct feeding regimen, make vaccinations and deworming on time, give feasible physical activity in accordance with the age of the puppy, then you can avoid most diseases, giving your pet a happy childhood.

Article on our Yandex Zen channel.


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what and how many times to feed

When a small fluffy pet appears in the house, the first question that worries a caring owner is what is better to feed a puppy? What foods are suitable for his diet? And what is better to give the baby: natural food or industrial food? In the article we will tell you what to feed a puppy, how many times a day it should be done, and also how to calculate a portion of food, taking into account the age and breed of the animal.


  1. Puppy natural food
  2. What foods can be fed to a growing dog?
  3. Industrial feed
  4. How to feed a puppy correctly?
  5. Daily Feeding Rate
  6. Diet according to breed
  7. Puppies of small breeds
  8. Puppies of medium breeds
  9. Large dogs
  10. Feeding a puppy according to its age
  11. Feeding one month old puppy
  12. Feeding a two-month-old puppy
  13. Feeding a 3 month old baby

The selection of a diet for a small pet is a very crucial moment, because a balanced diet guarantees the full development of the body and the prevention of possible diseases.

Important: When choosing food for a puppy (purchased food or natural food), you must be guided by one simple rule – do not overfeed. Overeating can lead to joint problems, poor pet health, organ diseases and other serious diseases. Therefore, it is important to correctly calculate the portion that is given to the puppy.

Of course, you can spoil your pet. For example, before going to bed, give him porridge with milk or meat. But it doesn’t have to happen every day.

Feeding a puppy with natural food

Many owners prefer to feed their dogs with natural products because:

  • they are cheaper than ready-made food;
  • the owner is confident in the quality of the food he gives to the pet.

But natural food also has a lot of drawbacks. During the growth period, the puppy eats a lot, so you will often have to buy and prepare food for him.

If this prospect does not scare you, then here are some tips for choosing a diet for your baby. So that he does not get poisoned, you must ensure that the products are fresh. Meat “smell” at a low price will have a bad effect on the puppy’s health. Remember, he is a small child and should be treated responsibly.

Second rule: no table feeding! Food for him must be prepared separately, fried meat, fragrant barbecue, various soups will surely cause pleasant sensations in people, but not in a puppy. For him, this food is bad.

What foods can be fed to a growing dog?

    1. Milk

Dogs up to 4 months of age should be fed with milk. You can offer it raw or cook porridge from it. But not all milk will do. It is better to give preference to goat, it rarely causes allergies and is better accepted by the body. If such milk cannot be found, you can offer cow’s milk to the puppy, but before that, be sure to dilute it with water.

Closer to six months, milk begins to be canceled, reducing its amount.

Important: Animals older than eight months should not be given milk.

    1. Dairy products

Improves pet’s digestion and enriches the body with calcium. A puppy can be pleased with cottage cheese, kefir, low-fat sour cream. Hard cheeses are also useful, they are usually used as a treat when training a dog.

    1. Meat

Meat should make up at least 40% of your puppy’s daily diet. It is better to give raw meat, but you can also safely feed your pet frozen, boiled and scalded meat.

Do not feed bones to your puppy. They break and can injure the digestive organs. You can make bone broth and add it to porridge.

It is also not recommended to feed pork to dogs, regardless of their age.

    1. Fish and seafood

Thinking about what to feed a puppy, include fish in the menu. It can be given twice a week. It is better to offer your baby sea fish (since river fish can be harmful), squid, shrimp and pollock. Do not mix fish with meat.

    1. Vegetables

Vegetables contain a large amount of vitamins, so it is worth accustoming a puppy to them. You can offer them together with cottage cheese or porridge, as well as rubbed on a fine grater, in the form of mashed potatoes or stewed. The most useful vegetables include pumpkin, carrots, zucchini and greens.

    1. Berries and fruits

Beneficial for a growing organism, so they are advised to be used as a supplement to food intake. It is not recommended to give bananas because they can speed up weight gain. Also, do not offer grapes and currants that cause bloating.

    1. Cereals

No need to make porridge the main dish. Cereals have a beneficial effect on digestion, but they are the basis of nutrition, but only supplement the milk and meat diet.

Puppies may like porridges such as:

    • semolina;
    • buckwheat;
    • rice;
    • oatmeal.

    If your baby has diarrhea, temporarily eliminate the porridge you fed him.

    1. Eggs

    Saturate the dog’s body with protein. It is recommended to give twice a week.

    Industrial food

    How to feed your pet with dry food? This question is asked by any responsible owner who decides to make purchased food the basis of the nutrition of a new pet. Some owners believe that such feeds do not contain enough substances for the proper growth of the pet. But this is not the case, the food is designed to not only satisfy the dog’s hunger, but also provide it with the necessary vitamins and minerals. Purchased food is well balanced, it is easy to give it to your pet, the main thing is to follow the dosage instructions.

    What is the right way to feed a puppy?

    Purchased food for small puppies must be soaked in advance. About half an hour before feeding, fill it with water so that it swells. It is forbidden to soak the granules in broths.

    Follow the dosage instructions on the package. Do not underestimate or exceed the dose. If the dosage is exceeded, dry food can cause rapid weight gain.

    There are cases when a dog needs to be transferred from regular food to dry food, but not abruptly, but gradually. We recommend discussing the transition with your veterinarian before doing so.

    If you do not know what food to feed your puppy, it is better to give preference to premium lines. Typically, these types of feed contain a greater amount of minerals and vitamins.

    Zoomix shop offers dry food of existing classes: from economy options to super premium. We advise you to take out the following brands:

    • Hill”s;
    • Royal Canin;
    • Purina Proplan;
    • Popular feed
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      Canned food for cats Lechat Pate. Pate with game and poultry (100g)

      Canned food for cats Lechat Pate. Pate with game and poultry (100g)
      Lechat Pate
      Pate with game and poultry is a complete food for cats.
      Production – Italy.

      game, meat…