Max hours for part time: How Many Hours is a Part Time Job? | Average and Max
How Many Hours is a Part Time Job? | Average and Max
Part-time employees make it possible for employers to expand their workforce to meet demand without incurring as many costs as they would if they acquired full-time help. Yet, if an employer’s only experience is with full-time employees, they might be unsure how part-time work impacts their business. For instance, how many hours amount to part-time work? Are part-time employees entitled to benefits? The answers to questions like these and others will shed some light on part-time work.
Table of Contents
- What is a part-time job?
- How many hours a week is part-time?
- Advantages and disadvantages of part-time employees
- Overtime and part-time workers
- What jobs are best suited for part-time employees?
- Frequently asked questions
What is a part-time job?
A part-time job is one in which an employee works less hours and has fewer responsibilities than those with full-time status. For example, a full-time employee traditionally puts in 40 hours per week, whereas a part-time employee may only work 25 hours per week. Some employers may even permit part-time employees to alternate shifts or make their own schedules. This flexibility is desired by many people who have priorities outside of their career, such as caring for a child or elderly family member, attending school, pursuing a hobby, etc.
How many hours a week is part-time?
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey data, the average number of part-time hours per week is 35. This number is merely a point of reference, though, and not enforced by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which offers no guidance on part-time employees vs. full-time employees. However, labeling an employee as part-time does not change the application of FLSA requirements.
The IRS, meanwhile, considers a part-time employee to be someone who works less than 30 hours per week or less than 130 hours per month. They created these criteria for the Affordable Care Act (ACA) since applicable large employers (ALEs) are required to provide minimum essential health coverage only to full-time employees.
Therefore, unless an employer is bound by the ACA, they are generally free to create their own definitions of full-time and part-time work. It may be a good idea to document the differences between the two in company policy, clearly outlining not only the hours expected of each role, but also the eligibility for any benefits that may be available.
Advantages and disadvantages of part-time employees
Many new and growing businesses experience a window where the demand for their product or service eclipses their team’s output. Extra help is needed, but hiring more full-time employees isn’t in the budget. Part-time employees provide a potential solution to this problem. Here’s why:
- Part-time employees have fewer overhead costs (e.g., wages, benefits) than full-time employees.
- Employers can flex their workforce to meet seasonal ebbs and flows in consumer traffic.
- Part-time workers pick up the slack and help ease stress on full-time employees.
Yet, because part-time employees work less hours and have fewer responsibilities than full-time employees, they may not accomplish as much in the same time frame. They may also struggle to form relationships with colleagues and assimilate to the workplace culture.
Overtime and part-time workers
Part-time employees generally don’t work enough hours to qualify for overtime, but that doesn’t mean they aren’t entitled to it. Under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), nonexempt employees, whether they have full-time or part-time status, must receive premium overtime pay if they work more than 40 hours in a workweek. The rate paid is one and one-half times the employee’s regular rate of pay.
Note: some states have overtime regulations that differ from the FLSA, such as premium pay after a certain number of hours worked in a day.
What jobs are best suited for part-time employees?
Part-time employment is most common in the retail and hospitality industries, though opportunities can be found in almost any sector. Some examples include:
- Bank teller
- Graphic designer
- Administrative assistant
- Construction worker
- Customer service representative
Frequently asked questions about part-time employment
Why do people work part-time?
One common reason people work part-time hours is that they need additional income. They may work a full-time job during the day and a part-time job at night or on the weekends to make ends meet. Another reason is that they have responsibilities or interests, e.g., caring for a child or pursuing a hobby, that prevent them from committing to a full-time career. These people appreciate the flexibility that a part-time job affords them.
When does a part-time worker become full-time?
Employers who are not required to sponsor health insurance may define the minimum hours for part-time and full-time employment on their own terms. As it pertains to ACA enforcement, the IRS allows two methods for determining full- and part-time employees:
- Monthly measurement methodology
On a monthly basis, employees who work more than 130 hours or average 30 hours per week may be considered full-time.
- Look-back measurement methodology
Employers may calculate the hours worked by employees during a specified period of months (measurement period). If the employees average at least 30 hours per week during those months, they are considered full-time for a separate, specified period (stability period).
What workplace rights do part-time workers have?
Aside from employer-sponsored benefits and paid time off, people who are working on a part-time basis generally enjoy the same privileges as full-time employees. They may be entitled to overtime pay, workers’ compensation, unemployment and family and medical leave as long as they meet the requisite criteria.
How many hours worked per day are considered part-time?
Full-time and part-time hours are usually expressed by the week or month, with 40 hours per week being the traditional standard for full-time. Therefore, anyone who consistently works less than eight hours per day could be considered a part-time employee, though it ultimately depends on the employer’s policies.
Are part-time workers happier?
Happiness is subjective. However, part-time employees may have a better work-life balance than full-time employees because they have more time to pursue personal interests.
What is a good salary expectation for part-time employment?
Salaries and hourly wages for part-time work vary based on industry and geographic region. In either case, nonexempt, part-time employees are entitled to at least the applicable minimum wage.
How do I apply overtime regulations to my part-time employees?
Employers must keep accurate and complete records of all hours worked by their nonexempt employees, whether they are part-time or full-time. The FLSA entitles such employees to one and one-half times their regular pay rate for each hour worked in excess of 40 hours per workweek. Different overtime regulations may apply, depending on the state where the employee is working.
Are part-time employees entitled to vacation, sick or holiday pay?
Certain state laws may entitle full- and part-time employees to paid sick leave or paid time off (PTO). Employers need to review their state’s specific requirements. Beyond that, the FLSA generally does not require payment for time not worked, including vacations, sick leave and holidays. Some employers, however, have PTO policies of their own that cover both full- and part-time employees as a recruitment and engagement tactic.
This article is intended to be used as a starting point in analyzing part-time hours and is not a comprehensive resource of requirements. It offers practical information concerning the subject matter and is provided with the understanding that ADP is not rendering legal or tax advice or other professional services.
How Many Hours is Part-Time? Definition, Benefits, Overtime and More
Whether you’re currently a part-time employee or considering a part-time job offer, you may be wondering just how many hours is part-time? You know it’s less than 40 hours, but beyond that, you’re not quite sure what being part-time entails.
What happens if you work more hours than your usual schedule? When does overtime kick in? And what about benefits?
Well, don’t fret! We’re here to help you sort it out and understand how many hours part-time work is and what a part-time employee can expect.
What is Considered Part-Time?
The U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) does not define how many hours a week part-time is. The FLSA specifically says that it’s up to the employer to decide what part-time means to the company.
Because there’s no standard definition, for many years, companies have used 35 hours a week as the line between part-time and full-time work. This is likely because the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) considered anyone working less than 35 hours a week a part-time employee. However, this was a number the BLS chose and was not based on a specific legal definition.
The Affordable Care Act does define part-time work: less than 30 hours a week. As a result, most companies schedule part-time employees for 20 to 29 hours per week. However, you could work fewer than 20 hours or more than 29 and still be considered a part-time employee.
According to the ACA, you are a full-time employee if you work an average of 30 hours per week for more than 120 days a year. If you work less than 30 hours a week on average, you’re a part-time employee. If one or even two weeks you work more than 30 hours, you are not automatically a full-time employee if your weekly average remains below 30 hours per week.
Do Part-Time Workers Get Benefits?
There are no federal laws that require part-timers to receive benefits (like sick leave, holidays, or vacation). That said, some states require employers to allow all employees—including part-time workers—to earn paid time off. For example, in California, all workers are eligible to earn a minimum of one hour of paid sick for every 30 hours they work.
Part-time employees may also be eligible for unpaid but protected leave under the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA). One of the eligibility requirements is that an employee has worked for their employer for at least 1,250 hours over the past 12 months. That’s approximately 24 hours of work per week over 52 weeks.
Beyond those benefits, giving part-time workers anything else (retirement, paid vacation, profit sharing) is up to the employer.
What About Overtime?
As an hourly worker, you are not eligible for overtime pay until you’ve worked more than 40 hours in a workweek. So, even if your usual schedule is 20 hours each week, and one or two weeks you work 30 or even 35 hours, your employer is not required to pay you overtime, only your regular hourly salary.
When Part-Time Is Right for You
A part-time job can give you the flexibility a full-time role may lack, help you earn an income when full-time isn’t an option, and help you keep you enhance your skills by keeping you connected to the workforce.
When part-time is the right choice for you, go for it! But before you do, have a clear understanding of how your employer defines part-time, so there are no surprises when you get your schedule (or on your paycheck).
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Working hours \ ConsultantPlus
12. Different types of working and rest time are established for women, persons with family responsibilities and minors.
By virtue of articles 92, 94 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, reduced working hours are established: for minors under the age of sixteen – no more than 24 hours a week, for workers aged sixteen to eighteen years – no more than 35 hours a week. At the same time, the duration of daily work (shift) cannot exceed 5 hours for minors aged fifteen to sixteen years and 7 hours for minors aged sixteen to eighteen. For persons studying in organizations engaged in educational activities, during the academic year, the working time norms are no more than 12 hours a week for employees under the age of sixteen and no more than 17.5 hours a week for employees aged sixteen to eighteen years. At the same time, the duration of daily work (shift) cannot exceed 2.5 hours for persons aged from fourteen to sixteen years and 4 hours – for persons from sixteen to eighteen years of age.
In proportion to the reduced working hours for the specified employees, based on the general output norms, output norms are established and wages are paid. The employer has the right, at his own expense, to make additional payments to them up to the level of remuneration of employees of the relevant categories for the full duration of daily work.
For employees under the age of eighteen who enter the workforce after receiving general education or secondary vocational education, as well as those who have completed vocational training at the workplace, reduced production rates and additional payments to wages may be established at the expense of the employer (Articles 270, 271 TC RF).
Evidence confirming the actual working time of a minor employee is: an employment contract, a working time schedule, a time sheet, pay slips, documentary and electronic means of recording working time, as well as other evidence that meets the requirements of relevance and admissibility provided for articles 59 and 60 of the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation.
Consultant Plus: note.
For additional guarantees for women working in rural areas, see art. 263.1 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation.
13. For women working in rural areas, in the regions of the Far North and areas equivalent to them, a 36-hour working week is established, unless a shorter working week is established by labor legislation and other regulatory legal acts containing labor law norms, collective contract, agreements, local regulations, labor contract. At the same time, wages are paid in the same amount as for a full working week (Article 320 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, resolution of the Supreme Council of the RSFSR of November 1, 1990 N 298 / 3-I “On urgent measures to improve the situation of women, families, protection of motherhood and childhood in the countryside”).
If the employer has not established a reduced working time for the specified category of employees, the work performed by them in excess of the established working hours is subject to payment in accordance with the rules provided for in Article 152 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation for payment of overtime.
According to article 93 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, part-time work (shift) or part-time work week is established for pregnant women, one of the parents (guardian, trustee) who has a child under the age of fourteen (a disabled child under the age of eighteen), a person caring for a sick family member in accordance with a medical report. The provision of such working hours is carried out on the basis of the application of these persons and is the obligation of the employer. This rule also applies to other persons raising children under the age of fourteen (a disabled child under the age of eighteen) without a mother. In this case, wages are paid in proportion to the hours worked or depending on the amount of work performed.
14. It should be borne in mind that sending pregnant women and underage workers to work overtime, work at night, weekends and non-working holidays is prohibited. This prohibition does not apply to persons under the age of eighteen who are creative workers of the media, cinematography organizations, television and video filming groups, theaters, theater and concert organizations, circuses, and other persons involved in the creation and (or) performance (exhibition) of works (Article 96, 113, 259, 268 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation).
Women with children under the age of three, employees with disabled children, as well as employees caring for sick members of their families in accordance with a medical certificate issued in accordance with the procedure established by federal laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation , mothers and fathers raising children under the age of five without a spouse, as well as guardians of children of this age, can be sent on business trips, involved in overtime work, work at night, on weekends and non-working holidays only with their written consent and provided that such work is not prohibited by them for health reasons in accordance with the medical opinion. This rule also applies to other persons raising children under the age of five without a mother. The said employees must be informed in writing of their right to refuse said work. Such refusal is not considered a disciplinary offense, and therefore these employees cannot be subject to disciplinary action. Refusal to work at night is also lawful in the case when only part of the night time was spent on its implementation.
15. Within the meaning of articles 264, 287 of the Labor Code of the Russian Federation, guarantees and benefits in the form of restrictions on night work and overtime work, involvement in work on weekends and non-working holidays, assignments on business trips, provision of additional holidays, establishment of preferential working conditions and other guarantees and benefits established by laws and other regulatory legal acts, provided to women in connection with motherhood, apply to fathers and other persons raising children without a mother, to guardians (custodians) of minors engaged in labor activities, including persons working at the same time.
Ministry of Labor and Social Protection of the Russian Federation: Official website
Working hours should provide (Article 100 of the Code): on a rotating schedule, part-time),
Features of the regime of working time and rest time for transport workers, communications workers and others with a special nature of work are determined in the manner established by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of December 10, 2002 No. 877.
Working hours – the time during which the employee, in accordance with the internal labor regulations and the terms of the employment contract, must perform labor duties, as well as other periods of time that, in accordance with the Code, other federal laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation, refer to to working time.
Normal working hours may not exceed 40 hours per week (Article 91 of the Code).
For certain categories of employees, labor legislation provides for the establishment of reduced working hours (Article 92 of the Code):
The legislation also provides for the possibility of establishing part-time work both by agreement of the parties to the employment contract, and by virtue of the direct obligation of the employer (at the request of a pregnant woman, one of the parents with a child under the age of 14 and in other cases provided for in Article 93 of the Code ).
At the same time, the reduced duration of daily work is established (Article 94 of the Code): 15 to 16 years old – 5 hours, 16 to 18 years old – 7 hours;
The duration of work on the eve of a non-working holiday is reduced by one hour (Article 95 of the Code).
The duration of work (shift) at night is reduced by one hour without further working off (Article 96 of the Code).
The employer has the right to engage employees to work outside the working hours established for this employee:
- for overtime work in the manner prescribed by Article 99 of the Code;
- if the employee works on irregular working hours (Article 101 of the Code).
Legislation provides for the possibility of establishing work in irregular working hours, flexible working hours, shift work, as well as the division of the working day into parts.
The Code also provides for the possibility of introducing a summarized recording of working hours so that the length of working time for an accounting period (month, quarter and other periods) does not exceed the normal number of working hours. The accounting period cannot exceed one year, and for accounting for the working time of employees employed in work with harmful and (or) dangerous working conditions, three months (Article 104).