Childtime penfield: CHILDTIME OF PENFIELD – 12 Photos – 2052 Fairport 9 Mile Point Road, Penfield, New York – Child Care & Day Care – Phone Number
Childtime Learning Center- Penfield | Kids Out and About Rochester
2052 Fairport 9 Mile Point Rd
43° 8′ 7.728″ N, 77° 26′ 28.5864″ W
Child care center
What our organization offers:
Subjects / Categories:
Ages for which our activities are most appropriate:
15 months – 2 years
Childtime is one of the nation’s largest providers of child care and preschool educational services. Childtime has a network of over 250 centers. The home-like atmosphere and the personal attention sets them apart from other national childcare networks. For more information, please call Customer Support at (866) 244-5384.
At Childtime, we believe that children are talented, capable people who
- construct their knowledge through investigation and exploration, story and play;
- are born with a sense of wonder and a natural curiosity about the world around them;
- need to express their feelings, ideas, and experiences in many different ways.
Childtime’s The Empowered Child curriculum, designed by early education specialists for our Skill Builders and Kindergarten Connection classes, is inspired by the Reggio Emila approach to early learning and is based on the work of respected child development/early education theorists Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson and Lev Vygotsky. The Empowered Child curricular principles follow the guidelines for developmentally appropriate practice set forth by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC).
The Empowered Child curriculum provides three components of quality education: developmentally appropriate activities, a wondrous classroom environment and quality teacher-child interactions.
The Activities: In the Childtime classroom, we give children the time, materials and guidance to understand their world and to communicate that understanding in ways that are meaningful to them.
Childtime recognizes that children are naturally curious about the world around them and learn critical foundational science, math, and reading and writing concepts through hands-on, sensory-oriented activities. We support children’s active exploration and investigation through creative play activities.
The Classroom Environment: Brain research has shown that children make deeper connections in comfortable, calming, home-like learning environments, surrounded by the beauty of the natural world. We know that children feel safe here and are therefore best able to focus and learn.
Teacher-Child Interactions: Our skilled teachers encourage children to express their ideas and feelings in the ways which they are most comfortable, freeing them from the fears of mistakes and deepening their knowledge of the world around them.
Through the Empowered Child Curriculum, children feel valued for who they are. Children leave our program well-prepared for their kindergarten and elementary education, empowered to acquire skills they will need to become responsible members of their community, creative problem-solvers, and life-long learners.
Apache2 Debian Default Page: It works
Apache2 Debian Default Page
This is the default welcome page used to test the correct
operation of the Apache2 server after installation on Debian systems.
If you can read this page, it means that the Apache HTTP server installed at
this site is working properly. You should replace this file (located at
/var/www/html/index.html) before continuing to operate your HTTP server.
If you are a normal user of this web site and don’t know what this page is
about, this probably means that the site is currently unavailable due to
If the problem persists, please contact the site’s administrator.
Debian’s Apache2 default configuration is different from the
upstream default configuration, and split into several files optimized for
interaction with Debian tools. The configuration system is
fully documented in
/usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian.gz. Refer to this for the full
documentation. Documentation for the web server itself can be
found by accessing the manual if the apache2-doc
package was installed on this server.
The configuration layout for an Apache2 web server installation on Debian systems is as follows:
/etc/apache2/ |-- apache2.conf | `-- ports.conf |-- mods-enabled | |-- *.load | `-- *.conf |-- conf-enabled | `-- *.conf |-- sites-enabled | `-- *.conf
apache2. conf is the main configuration
file. It puts the pieces together by including all remaining configuration
files when starting up the web server.
ports.conf is always included from the
main configuration file. It is used to determine the listening ports for
incoming connections, and this file can be customized anytime.
Configuration files in the mods-enabled/,
conf-enabled/ and sites-enabled/ directories contain
particular configuration snippets which manage modules, global configuration
fragments, or virtual host configurations, respectively.
They are activated by symlinking available
configuration files from their respective
*-available/ counterparts. These should be managed
by using our helpers
. See their respective man pages for detailed information.
The binary is called apache2. Due to the use of
environment variables, in the default configuration, apache2 needs to be
started/stopped with /etc/init.d/apache2 or apache2ctl.
Calling /usr/bin/apache2 directly will not work with the
By default, Debian does not allow access through the web browser to
any file apart of those located in /var/www,
directories (when enabled) and /usr/share (for web
applications). If your site is using a web document root
located elsewhere (such as in /srv) you may need to whitelist your
document root directory in /etc/apache2/apache2.conf.
The default Debian document root is /var/www/html. You
can make your own virtual hosts under /var/www. This is different
to previous releases which provides better security out of the box.
Please use the reportbug tool to report bugs in the
Apache2 package with Debian. However, check existing bug reports before reporting a new bug.
Please report bugs specific to modules (such as PHP and others)
to respective packages, not to the web server itself.
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Penfield little men0001
In order to understand how so-called brain maps can change, we must first understand what they are. The human brain was first mapped in the 1930s by Canadian neurosurgeon Dr. Wilder Penfield of the Montreal Neurological Institute. For Penfield, “mapping” the patient’s brain meant identifying the projection areas of the cerebral cortex, where various parts of the body are represented and information is processed about the actions they perform. It was found that the cerebral cortex in the frontal lobes includes a motor (i.e. motor) system that coordinates the movements of our muscles, and three more cortex zones – temporal, parietal and occipital – form a sensory (sensory) system of the brain that processes signals, sent to the brain from the sense organs (eyes, ears, touch receptors, etc.).
For many years, Penfield mapped the sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex based on information he received from operating on the brains of patients with cancer and epilepsy. Since there are no pain receptors in the human brain, such patients remain conscious during surgery. Penfield found that if you touch the sensory area of the brain with a special electrode, it causes certain sensations in the patient’s body. He used an electrical probe (electrode) to distinguish healthy tissue (which should be preserved) from malignant neoplasms or pathological tissue that needed to be removed.
Normally, when someone or something touches a person’s hand, an electrical signal is sent to the spinal cord. Further, this signal passes to the brain, to those areas of the cortex that allow the hand to feel this touch. Penfield figured out that he could make patients feel like they were touching their hand by applying an electric shock to the area of the brain corresponding to the area of the hand. When he stimulated in the brain another part of the projection points of the arm, the patient felt a touch on the shoulder, hand, fingers, etc. Stimulation of a completely different projection zone of the brain map caused sensations of touch on the face. Over time, Penfield produced a sensory map of the brain, which represented the surface of all parts of the body35.
35 The map of sensory areas in the cerebral cortex is often depicted as a “Penfield man”. This projection man (drawn taking into account the ratio of representations of different parts of the body) looks peculiar. He has excessively enlarged areas of the body that have a special, well-differentiated, subtle sensitivity: hands (especially fingertips), lips, etc. And this sensitive little man reaches the most incredible size … tongue. — Approx. ed.
Penfield did the same for the motor map, that is, he identified the areas of the cerebral cortex that control movement. By touching various zones, he caused the patient to move in the leg, arm, face and other muscles.
One of the main discoveries made by Penfield was that the sensory and motor areas of the brain, like geographical maps, have a topographic character. This means that neighboring areas of the human body are usually represented in neighboring areas of brain maps. He also found that by touching certain parts of the map, long-lost childhood memories or fantasy scenes can be evoked, meaning that higher-level mental activity is also mapped to the brain.
Penfield’s maps have defined the brain for generations of scientists. However, following the belief that the brain cannot be changed, they believed that these maps are permanent, unchanging and universal – the same for each of us – although Penfield himself never claimed such a thing.
Merzenich found that brain maps are not fixed and universal, but have different boundaries and sizes for different people. Through a series of brilliant experiments, he demonstrated that the shape of brain maps changes depending on what we do throughout our lives. But in order to prove this, he needed a much thinner instrument than the Penfield electrodes.
Merzenich, during his undergraduate studies at the University of Portland, together with a friend used the equipment of the electronics laboratory, which allows you to register the “curve” of electrical activity in the neurons of insects. These experiments attracted the attention of one of the professors, who admired Merzenich’s talent and curiosity and recommended him for graduate studies at Harvard University and Johns Hopkins University. Merzenich was accepted to both universities, but chose Johns Hopkins University, where he received a Ph.D. in physiology from one of the most prominent neurophysiologists of the time, Vernon Mountcastle. Last at 19In the 1950s, he argued that the details of brain maps could be clarified by studying electrical activity using a new technique – using microelectrodes.
Microelectrodes are so small and sensitive that they can be inserted inside (or near) one neuron and record the moment when that particular neuron sends an electrical signal to other neurons. The signal of the neuron is transmitted from the microelectrode to the amplifier, and then to the oscilloscope screen, where it appears as a sharp spike (the so-called spike) on the “electrical activity curve”. It was with the help of microelectrodes that Merzenich made most of his major discoveries.
This important invention allowed neurophysiologists to record the interaction of neurons, the total number of which in the adult brain is estimated at about 100 billion. Using cruder electrodes, like those used by Penfield, the scientists could only see thousands of neurons fire simultaneously.
Micromapping still provides information that is about a thousand times more accurate than brain scans on the latest generation of machines. The fact is that the duration of the electrical signal that occurs in a neuron is often a thousandth of a second, so brain scanners miss a huge amount of information36. Despite this, micromapping cannot replace brain scanning in medicine, because it requires extremely labor-intensive operations performed under a microscope using microsurgical instruments.
36 Brain scans, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, measure activity in a 1 mm area of the brain. However, the size of a neuron in diameter is usually equal to a thousandth of a millimeter. S. P. Springer and G. Deutsch. 1999. Left brain, right brain: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. New York: W. H. Freeman & Co., 65.
Merzenich immediately began to actively use this technique. He wanted to refine the map of the area of the brain where the processing of sensations from touching the hand occurs. Merzenich removed a piece of the monkey’s skull above the corresponding sensory area of the cortex, making a “window” in the skull measuring one by two millimeters, and then placed a microelectrode next to the first sensory neuron that came across. After that, he tapped the monkey’s hand until he reached that area – for example, the tip of a finger – touching which caused the neuron to transmit an electrical signal to the microelectrode. In this way, he recorded the location of one of the neurons representing the fingertip in the sensory cortex, marking the first point on the map. Then he set up a microelectrode next to another neuron and looked for the place, touching which “turned on” this neuron. He did this until the whole brush was mapped. To compile such a map, a huge number of microelectrode movements are required. Merzenich and his colleagues conducted thousands of such experiments in the course of their research.
The brain also has critical periods
Around the same time, an important discovery was made that forever changed Merzenich’s work. In the 1960s, when Merzenich began using microelectrodes to study the brain, two other scientists, also working at the Johns Hopkins Institute under Mountcastle, discovered that the brains of very young animals are plastic. David Huebel and Thorsten Wiesel performed micromapping of the visual cortex to study visual information processing. They placed microelectrodes in the visual cortex of kittens and found that information about the lines, orientations, and movements of visually perceived objects is processed in different parts of the cortex. They also discovered the existence of a “critical period” between the third and eighth weeks of life when the brains of newborn kittens must receive visual stimulation for normal development. In one experiment, Hubel and Wiesel sewed up the eyelid of one eye of a kitten during the early development period so that that eye would not receive visual stimulation. When they freed the kitten’s eye from the stitches, they found that those visual areas on the brain map that process information coming from the closed eye did not receive any development, as a result of which the animal remained blind in that eye for life. It became obvious that there is a certain critical period when the kittens’ brain is especially plastic, and its structure is formed under the influence of experience.
After analyzing the brain map for the blind eye, Hubel and Wiesel made another unexpected finding related to neuroplasticity. That part of the brain, which did not receive information from the closed eye, was not inactive. She began to process visual information from her open eye, as if no “cortical areas” should be idle in the brain. That is, the brain again found a way to rebuild itself – which was another evidence of its special plasticity in a critical period. Hubel and Wiesel were awarded the Nobel Prize for this work. However, even after discovering the existence of brain plasticity in early childhood, the researchers did not “transfer” this plasticity to the adult brain.